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My Favourite Planet > English > People > Ancient Greek artists
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Ancient Greek artists

Version 001, May 2016.

Last updated 30 October 2019.

A work in progress - see notes below
Sculptors     Potters / vase painters     Painters     Mosaicists     Architects
 
Authors and works cited on this page
Ancient Greek
artists
Sculptors
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N      O      P      R      S      T      Z
Sculptors A  
 
Name / Biographical information   Works / References  
Adymos of Veroea

Ἅδυμος (Latin, Adymus)

1st century AD

From Veroea (Βέροια), Macedonia

He was the son of Evandros, perhaps
Evandros of Veroea.

It is thought that Evandros and Adymos belonged to a family of sculptors who undertook commissions around Macedonia and Thessaly. They both made grave monuments and, unusually, signed their name on them; most sculptors of the time remain anonymous. This suggests that they had a high reputation in the region.
  The only surviving sculpture by Adymos, is the lower part of a marble grave column, discovered in 1932 at the village of Marvinci, Valandovo, Republic of Macedonia (near the border with Greece), probably the site of the ancient Paeonian city Idomeneo. It has a bas-relief of the lower part of a woman wearing a sleeved cloak, to the right of which is the inscription:

Ἅδυμος Εὐάνδρου Βεροιαῖος ἐποίει

Adymos, son of Evandros, of Veroea, made it.

Inscription SEG 18:272.

Skopje Archaeological Museum.

Height 31 cm, width 28 cm, depth 13 cm.
 
Aetion

Αετίων

Sculptor and painter?

Mid 4th - early 3rd century BC

Perhaps from Amphipolis, Macedonia
  A sculptor named Aetion is known from references by Pliny the Elder, Theocritus and Callimachus. Aetion as a painter is mentioned by Cicero, Pliny and Lucian of Samosata, who describes a painting of the Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxana.

See the Aetion page for further details.
 
Ageladas of Argos

Ἀγελάδας; Ageladas or Hageladas; also Agelades (Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19)

Working around 520-450 century BC

From Argos, eastern Peloponnese

Pausanias mentioned a sculptor named Ageladas eight times (Description of Greece, books 4, 6, 7, 8, 10), six times as "Ageladas of Argos", who he said was a contemporary of Onatas and Hegias of Athens (Book 8, chapter 42, section 10).

The scholiast (commentator) on Aristophanes' Frogs (line 504), named Ageladas as the teacher of Pheidias However, he also wrote that he made the statue of Herakles Alexikakos (Ἡρακλῆς Ἀλεξίκακος, the averter of evil) set up in the Attic deme of Melite to commemorate the deliverance from the great plague (87th Olympiad, 430-427 BC; two outbreaks in 430/429 and 427/426 BC, Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 2, chapter 47) during the Peloponnesian War. This is probably too late for the assumed dates of his career.

(A statue of Apollo Alexikakos by Kalamis was set up around the same time in the Athenian Agora. See Kalamis 1.)

Pliny the Elder mentioned a sculptor named Agelades, working in bronze during the 87th Olympiad (430-427 BC), at the same time as Kallon (probably Kallon of Elis) and Gorgias the Laconian (see Gorgias), after the date he gave for Pheidias in the 83rd Olympiad. He also wrote that he was the teacher of Polykleitos and Myron (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19).

In view of his estimated long career of around 70-80 years, it has been suggested that ancient authors may have been referring to two artists of this name, one from Argos and the other from Sikyon, or made errors in their attributions of works. Other scholars have seen the claims that he was the teacher of Pheidias, Myron, and Polykleitos as later traditions or inventions.
  Pausanias mentioned three statues by Ageladas of Argos at Olympia, all thought to have been in bronze:

A statue of the pankration champion Timasitheus, from Delphi, who was later executed by the Athenians for his participation in the Spartan-backed attempt by the aristocrat Isagoras (Ἰσαγόρας) to establish a tyranny in 507 BC (also mentioned by Herodotus, Histories, Book 5, chapter 72).

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 8, section 5. At Perseus Digital Library.

The chariot of Cleosthenes, from Epidamnos, a victor in the 66th Olympic Games.

"Next to Pantarces is the chariot of Cleosthenes, a man of Epidamnus. This is the work of Ageladas, and it stands behind the Zeus dedicated by the Greeks from the spoil of the battle of Plataea. Cleosthenes' victory occurred at the sixty-sixth Festival, and together with the statues of his horses he dedicated a statue of himself and one of his charioteer. There are inscribed the names of the horses, Phoenix and Corax, and on either side are the horses by the yoke, on the right Cnacias, on the left Samus. This inscription in elegiac verse is on the chariot:

'Cleosthenes, son of Pontis, a native of Epidamnus, dedicated me
After winning with his horses a victory in the glorious games of Zeus.'

This Cleosthenes was the first of those who bred horses in Greece to dedicate his statue at Olympia."

Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 10, sections 6-8.

"Ageladas of Argos made the statue of Anochus of Tarentum, the son of Adamatas, who won victories in the short and double foot-race."

Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 14, section 11.

Pausanias also wrote that Ageladas made the cult statue of Zeus in the sanctuary of Zeus on Mount Ithome, the acropolis of Messenia.

"The statue of Zeus is the work of Ageladas, and was made originally for the Messenian settlers in Naupactus."

Description of Greece, Book 4, chapter 33, section 2. At Perseus Digital Library.

Refugees from Messene, southwest Peloponnese, fleeing from Spartan domination at the end of the Third Messenian War, were settled by the Athenians at Naupaktos (Ναύπακτος), on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, in 456/455 BC. The statue of Zeus would then have been either one of the last works of Ageladas of Argos or by the conjectural Ageladas of Sikyon.

 
At Delphi, Pausanias reported a statue group by Onatas of Aegina and Ageladas of Argos, depicting cavalry and infantry standing by Taras and Phalanthos bestriding the slain native king Opis, dedicated by the Tarentines.

"The Tarentines sent yet another tithe to Delphi from spoils taken from the Peucetii, a non-Greek people. The offerings are the work of Onatas the Aeginetan, and Ageladas the Argive, and consist of statues of footmen and horsemen – Opis, king of the Iapygians, come to be an ally to the Peucetii. Opis is represented as killed in the fighting, and on his prostrate body stand the hero Taras and Phalanthus of Lacedaemon, near whom is a dolphin. For they say that before Phalanthus reached Italy, he suffered shipwreck in the Crisaean sea, and was brought ashore by a dolphin."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 10, chapter 13, section 10. At Perseus Digital Library.

Statues of three Muses as personifications of the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic styles of Greek music by Aristokles, Kanachos and Ageladas were described in an epigram by the Greek poet Antipater of Sidon (Ἀντίπατρος ὁ Σιδώνιος) in the 2nd century BC.

"Three are we, the Muses who stand here; one bears in her hands a flute, another a harp, and the third a lyre. She who is the work of Aristocles holds the lyre, Ageladas' Muse the harp, and Canachas' the musical reeds. The first is she who rules tone, the second makes melody of colour, and the third invented skilled harmony."

William Roger Paton (translator), The Greek Anthology, Volume 5 (of 5), Book 16, Epigrams of the Planudean Appendix, No. 220, pages 290-291. In Greek and English. William Heinemann, London; G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1925. At the Internet Archive.

It is not known where these statues stood or whether they were all made at the same time, perhaps as a collaboration between three sculptors.
 
Agesander of Rhodes

Άγήσανδρος

(Agesandros, Hagesander, Hagesandros, Hagesanderus)

1st century BC - 1st century AD

Rhodes
  The Hellenistic marble statue groups "Laocoon and his Sons" (before 79 AD) in the Vatican Museums, and the "Scylla Group" (before 26 AD) at Sperlonga are signed by three sculptors including Agesander. Pliny wrote that he created "Laocoon and his sons" with Athenodoros and Polydoros (Natural History, Book 35, chapter 5), and is the only ancient author to mention him.

The Sperlonga sculptures, a collection of fragmented statue groups depicting scenes of Odysseus' adventures from Homer's Odyssey, was discovered in 1957 in a grotto at the Villa of Emperor Tiberius at Sperlonga, on the west coast of Italy, between Rome and Naples. The Scylla Group depicts Odysseus' ship being attacked by the monster Skylla. An inscription on the ship names the sculptors as "Athenodoros, son of Agesander", "Agesandros, son of Paionios" and "Polydoros, son of Polydoros".

The sculptures also include a group depicting Odysseus blinding the Cyclops Polyphemos.

It has been suggested that the three sculptors were copyists, and also that there may have been more than one Agesander, possibly members of the same family. Scholars have attempted to identify the one or more Agesanders on the grounds of artistic style and from these inscriptions, as well as others found in Rhodes and elsewhere.
 
Agorakritos of Paros

Ἀγοράκριτος (Latin, Agoracritus)

From Paros; he worked in Athens around 436-424 BC.

According to Pliny, he was from Paros and a pupil of Pheidias at the same time as Alkamenes:

"Another disciple also of Phidias was Agoracritus of Paros, a great favourite with his master, on account of his extremely youthful age; and for which reason, it is said, Phidias gave his own name to many of that artist's works.

The two pupils entering into a contest as to the superior execution of a statue of Venus [Aphrodite], Alcamenes was successful; not that his work was superior, but because his fellow-citizens chose to give their suffrages in his favour in preference to a stranger. It was for this reason, it is said, that Agoracritus sold his statue, on the express condition that it should never be taken to Athens, and changed its name to that of Nemesis. It was accordingly erected at Rhamnus, a borough of Attica, and M. Varro has considered it superior to every other statue.

There is also to be seen in the Temple of the Great Mother [Kybele], in the same city, another work by Agoracritus."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

He is also mentioned by Pausanias and Strabo.
  His works included:

A Pentelic marble statue of Nemesis at Rhamnous (Ῥαμνοῦς), near Marathon, Attica.

A statue, probably of Kybele, in the Temple of the Great Mother (Metroon) in the Athenian Agora.

Bronze statues of Athena Itonia and Zeus/Hades at Koroneia, Boeotia.

A marble statue of Demeter from Eleusis, circa 420 BC, is thought to have made in the workshop of Agorakritos. Eleusis Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 5076.

A marble statue of Persephone, circa 420-410 BC, found in Piraeus, is attributed to the school of Agorakritos. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 176.
 
A grave stele possibly sculpted by a pupil of Agorakritos of Paros at My Favourite Planet

The top of a grave stele found on Aegina, with a relief possibly made
by a sculptor who trained in the workshop of Agorakritos of Paros
and may have also worked on the Parthenon frieze.

Around 430-420 BC. Pentelic marble.

A standing youth, his head turned to the left, holds a bird in his lowered left hand
and extends his right hand to an empty cage. On the left stands a sad-looking
young attendant (a slave?), depicted at a smaller scale, leans against a pillar on
top of which is a crouching cat. The horizontal moulding at the top of the stele
is decorated with a relief band of palmettes and lotus flowers.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 715.
Alexandros of Antioch

Ἀλέξανδρος

Antioch

2nd half of the 2nd century BC
  The "Venus de Milo" (Greek, Αφροδίτη της Μήλου, Aphroditi tis Milou, Aphrodite of Milos), today the most famous statue of Aphrodite. Circa 130-100 BC. Discovered in 1820 on the island of Melos, Greece. Believed to be a work of Alexandros of Antioch from an inscription on its plinth (now lost).

He is also thought to have made the statue of Alexander the Great found on Delos, now in the Louvre.
 
Alkamenes

Αλκαμένης (Latin, Alcamenes)

2nd half of the 5th century BC

Athens
  For further detais see the Alkamenes page.  
Alxenor

Ἀλξήνωρ (signature, Ἀλχσήνορ)

Early 5th century BC

From Naxos
  A grave stele of grey Boeotian marble, dated to around 490 BC, and found in Orchomenos, Boeotia, is signed at the bottom by Alxenor (see photo below). The low relief on the front of the stele is described as typical work of a Naxian workshop. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 39.  
A grave stele signed by the sculptor Alxenor at My Favourite Planet

A marble grave stele from Orchomenos, Boeotia,
signed at the bottom by Alxenor in the Naxian alphabet:

Ἀλχσήνορ [ἐ]ποίησεν ό Νάχσιος ἀλλ’ ἐσίδεσ̣[θε]

"Alxenor of Naxos made this; just look!"

Inscription IG VII 3225 (also CEG 150)
at The Packard Humanities Institute.

Around 490 BC. Grey Boeotian marble.
Height 197 cm, width 61 - 59 cm, depth 18 cm.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 39.
A drawing of the signature of Alxenor at My Favourite Planet

A drawing of the signature of Alxenor inscribed at the bottom of the grave stele.

Source: Emanuel Loewy, Inschriften griechischer Bildhauer (Inscriptions of Greek sculptors),
No. 7, pages 10-11. B. G. Teubner, Leipzig 1885. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.

Most of the surface of the front of the stele is filled with a low relief depicting the full-length figure of an elderly bearded man, wearing a himation (cloak) and supporting himself on a walking stick or crutch. Between the forefinger and thumb of his right hand he holds a grasshopper (or cricket or locust) which he offers to his dog. He is thought to be the deceased honoured by the funerary monument, and the base of the stele (now missing) was probably inscribed with his name (as on the grave stele of Aristion by Aristokles).

The height of the stele given by different sources varies between 197 cm and 205 cm.

The stele was first reported by the Irish painter and traveller Edward Dodwell (1767-1832), who saw it in December 1801 in the churchyard of the village of Romaiko (Ρωμαίικο), on the river Kifissos, 4 km west of the site of ancient Orchomenos (Ὀρχομενός) and 2 km southwest of its acropolis. Dodwell was unable to decipher the Naxian script. He speculatively associated the insect held by the man on the stele with a historical or legendary plague of locusts.

"As the basis of the monument was under ground, I removed the earth, and discovered on it a few letters; which, from their imperfect state, it has been impossible to render intelligible."

"In the Athenian Acropolis there was anciently a statue of Apollo, named Parnopios, because he delivered the country from locusts [a bronze statue near the Parthenon, said to be by Pheidias, Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 24, section 8]. Strabo [Geography, Book 13, chapter 1, section 64] says that the Oitaians honoured Hercules under the name of Kornopion, because he delivered them from locusts, which the Greeks generally called parnopes though the Oitaians called them kornopes. The monument of Romaiko may allude to this circumstance."

Edward Dodwell, A classical and topographical tour through Greece, during the years 1801, 1805, and 1806, Volume 1 (of 2), pages 242-243, with drawing. Rodwell and Martin, London, 1819. At the Internet Archive.
 
A drawing of the Alxenor stele by Edward Dodwell at My Favourite Planet

A drawing of the Alxenor stele
by Edward Dodwell.
Anaxagoras of Aegina

Ἀναξαγόρας

Early 5th century BC

Aegina
  According to Pausanias, Anaxagoras made a bronze statue of Zeus at Olympia, commissioned by the Greek states which had united against the invasion of Xerxes I of Persia (480-479 BC), and fought at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC against Xerxes' general Mardonius.

"As you pass by the entrance to the Council Chamber you see an image of Zeus standing with no inscription on it, and then on turning to the north another image of Zeus. This is turned towards the rising sun, and was dedicated by those Greeks who at Plataea fought against the Persians under Mardonius. On the right of the pedestal are inscribed the cities which took part in the engagement ..."

After listing the various cities, Pausanias continued:

"The image at Olympia dedicated by the Greeks was made by Anaxagoras of Aegina. The name of this artist is omitted by the historians of Plataea."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 23, sections 1-3.
 
Androsthenes

Ἀνδροσθένης

4th century BC

From Athens
  See Praxias and Androsthenes  
Antenor

Ἀντήνωρ

Flourished circa 540-500 BC

Athens
  Antenor made statues of the Athenian tyrannicides (Τυραννοκτόνοι) Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who in 514 BC killed Hipparchos, one of the sons and successors of the tyrant Peisistratos, and then were themselves killed.

The statues, which stood in the Athenian Agora, were commissioned by the Athenians after Hipparchos' brother Hippias had been driven out of the city with the help of the Spartans in 510 BC and the establishment of democracy. They were the first Greek statues known to depict real persons heroized by a recent historical event.

They were carried away to Persia by Xerxes I with other booty from his occupation of Athens in 480 BC. Around two centuries later they were returned by the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter, but meanwhile two new statues had been made by Kritios and Nesiotes (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 8, section 5).

It has been suggested that the akroterion statue of winged Nike (515-505 BC) from the Archaic temple of Apollo in Delphi may be by Antenor.

Delphi Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 1872.
 
Antiphanes of Argos

Ἀντιφάνης ὁ Ἀργεῖος

Late 5th century BC

Argos, northeastern Peloponnese

He was a pupil of Periklytos, and teacher of Kleon.
  Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 10) mentions several statues by Antiphanes at Delphi:

Elatus, Apheidas, Erasus, the Dioskouri and a bronze horse, "supposed to be the wooden horse of Troy".
 
Archelaos of Priene

Ἀρχέλαος Πριηνεὐς

Son of Apollonios of Priene, Ionia

3rd or 2nd century BC
  The Apotheosis of Homer, a Hellenistic marble relief, also known as "the Relief of Archelaos", signed by Archelaos, son of Apollonios of Priene. Thought to have to have been made in Alexandria, Egypt, 3rd or 2nd century BC. Parian marble. Discovered near Rome in the 17th century.

British Museum, London.
Inv. No. GR 1819.8-12.1. Sculpture 2191.
 
Archermos of Chios

Άρχερμος (Latin, Archermus)

Mid-late 6th century BC

Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4) wrote that Archermos belonged to a family of sculptors from Chios: his grandfather Melas of Chios, his father Mikkiades, and his sons, Bupalus and Athenis.

Concerning Bupalus and Athenis, Pliny continues:

"... these artists executed a number of statues in the neighbouring islands; at Delos for example, with an inscription subjoined to the effect, that Chios was rendered famous not only by its vines but by the works of the sons of Archermus as well.

The people of Lasos still show a Diana [Artemis] that was made by them; and we find mention also made of a Diana at Chios, the work of their hands: it is erected on an elevated spot, and the features appear stern to a person as he enters, and joyous as he departs.

At Rome, there are some statues by these artists on the summit of the Temple of the Palatine Apollo, and, indeed, in most of the buildings that were erected by the late Emperor Augustus. At Delos and in the Isle of Lesbos there were formerly some sculptures by their father to be seen."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4.
At Perseus Tufts.
  Archaic marble statue of Nike from Delos. The earliest known free-standing statue of a winged Nike, probably by Archermos of Chios, circa 550 BC. Found on Delos in 1877.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 21.

The Scholia (commentary) of Aristophanes' Birds mentions Archermos, artist, father of Bupalos and Athenis (or Athenidos), said to have been the first to represent Victory with wings:

"Only more recently have Nike and Eros acquired wings. For some say that it was Archennos [sic] the father of Boupalos and Athenis, others that it was Aglaophon the Thasian painter who made Nike winged, as Karystios of Pergamon relates."

There are varying translations of the Scholia. "Archennos" is thought to have been an error or misreading by those who copied the manuscripts.

See: John Williams White, The scholia on the Aves of Aristophanes, 574, pages 120 and 368. Ginn and Company, Boston and London, 1914. At the Internet Archive.

An inscribed statue base signed by Archermos and Mikkiades (perhaps Archermos' father), found in two fragments in 1880-1881 near to the findspot of the Nike, was thought to belong to the statue (see photo on the Nike page), leading archaeologists to believe they had discovered the first winged Nike by Archermos. However, the base was later thought to have supported a sphinx. The fragmentary inscription has been reconstructed and translated in a number of ways.

Μ̣ικκι̣ά̣[δης τόδ’ ἄγ]α̣λ̣μ̣α καλὸν μ̣’ [ἀνέθηκεν καὶ υἱὸς]
Ἄ̣ρχερμ̣ος θ[υσ]ί̣η̣σιν ℎ(ε)κήβο[λον αὖθ’ ἱλάσασθαι]
οἱ Χῖοι Μέλ̣α̣ν̣ος πατρώιον ἄσ[τυ λιπόντες]

Inscription SEG 19:510.

Inscription ID 9 (also SEG 19:510 and SEG 33:633).

"Farshooter [Apollo, receive this] fine figure [... worked by] the skills of Archermos, from the Chian Mikkiades ... the paternal city of Melas"

John Boardman, Greek art, page 91. Thames and Hudson, London, 2012 (4th edition).

See another signature of Archermos on a marble column below.
 
The signature of the sculptor Archemos of Chios at My Favourite Planet

Part of a fluted marble column which probably supported a
statue, inscribed in two flutes with the signature of the sculptor
Archemos of Chios and a dedication by a woman named Iphidike
to Athena Poliouchos (Πολιοῦχος, Protector of the City).

Around 510-500 BC. Three fragments found separately on
the Athens Acropolis in 1840, 1886 and 1899. Grey marble.
Height 91.5 cm, diameter 25 cm. 26 flutes; width of flute 3.2 cm.

Ἄρχερμος ἐποίε̄σεν ὁ Χῖος.
Ἰφιδίκε̄ μ᾽ ἀνέθε̄κεν Ἀθε̄ναίαι πολιό̄χο̄ι.

Archermos the Chian made me.
Iphidike dedicated me to Athena Poliouchos.

IG I³ 683 (= CEG 198; Antony E. Raubitschek,
Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis [DAA], No. 3).

Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 6241.
Aristion of Paros

Αριστίων Πάριός

Working in Athens around 540-525 BC

See the Aristion of Paros page.
 
The Phrasikleia kore statue by Aristion of Paros at My Favourite Planet

Detail of the Phrasikleia kore
statue by Aristion of Paros.
Aristokles

Ἀριστοκλε͂ς Ἀριστοκλῆς (Aristocles)

Late 6th century BC.

Working in Attica (?)

Nothing is known about his life, and only his name is known from signatures on surviving parts of funerary monuments from Attica. These may be have been works by more than one sculptor of this name.

Pausanias mentioned works by a sculptor or sculptors called Aristokles, thought to have been working in the 6th - 5th centuries BC:

Aristokles of Kydonia (Aristokles the Elder, perhaps around 600-568 BC);

Aristokles of Sikyon (Aristokles the Younger), perhaps the grandson of the former, and mentioned by Pausanias as the brother of Kanachos of Sikyon (the Elder), thought to have been working around the same time, around 540-508 BC.

Aristokles, son of Kleoetas

Aristokles was not an uncommon name, and no connection has been established between these artists and the sculptor (or sculptors) working in Athens around this time.
  A grave stele of Pentelic marble, known as the "Stele of Aristion" and dated to 510 BC, found in Velanideza, Attica, is signed at the bottom "work of Aristokles" (ἔργον Ἀριστοκλέος, ergon Aristokleos). The base of the stele is also inscribed with the name of the deceased man Aristion.

The stele itself has a finely sculpted and painted relief showing the full-length figure of a hoplite wearing a helmet, chitoniskos, cuirass and greaves, and holding a spear in his left hand.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 29.

See photos on the Aristokles page.

Aristokles' signature has been found on parts of three funerary monuments, all dated around 525-500 BC, from Kerameikos, Athens, now in the Kerameikos Archaeological Museum:

The base of a funerary statue, possibly of a horseman, for Xenophantos son of Sophilos.
Inv. No. I 389.

Base for a marble kouros statue for a Carian. Inv. No. I 190.

Fragment of a funerary stele for a woman.
Inv. No. P 1265.

See the Aristokles page.
 
Aristokles of Kydonia

Ἀριστοκλῆς (Latin, Aristocles)

Also referred to as Aristokles the Elder

From Kydonia (Κυδωνία, today Chania), on the north coast of Crete.

Perhaps working around 600-568 BC, and perhaps the grandfather of Aristokles of Sikyon
  Pausanias mentions a statue group by Aristokles of Kydonia in Olympia, depicting Herakles fighting the Amazon queen Hippolyta. It stood next to a bronze statue of Herakles by Onatas of Aegina, dedicated by the Achaeans (see Onatas).

"Not far from the offering of the Achaeans there is also a Heracles fighting with the Amazon, a woman on horseback, for her girdle. It was dedicated by Evagoras, a Zanclaean by descent, and made by Aristocles of Cydonia. Aristocles should be included amongst the most ancient sculptors, and though his date is uncertain, he was clearly born before Zancle took its present name of Messene."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 25, section 11.
 
Aristokles of Sikyon

Ἀριστοκλῆς (Latin, Aristocles)

Also referred to as Aristokles the Younger

From Sikyon, northern Peloponnese

Perhaps the grandson of Aristokles of Kydonia

He was mentioned by Pausanias as the brother of Kanachos of Sikyon (the Elder), thought to have been working around the same time (around 540-508 BC).

"Ptolichus was a pupil of his father Synnoon, and he of Aristocles the Sicyonian, a brother of Canachus and almost as famous an artist."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 9, section 1.

He is also mentioned in connection with a statue by Pantias in Olympia.

"After Hysmon comes the statue of a boy wrestler from Heraea in Arcadia, Nicostratus the son of Xenocleides. Pantias was the artist, and if you count the teachers you will find five between him and Aristocles of Sicyon."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 3, section 11.
  Statues of three Muses by Aristokles, Kanachos and Ageladas were described in an epigram by the Greek poet Antipater of Sidon (Ἀντίπατρος ὁ Σιδώνιος) in the 2nd century BC (see Ageladas above).  
Aristokles, son of Kleoetas

Ἀριστοκλῆς (Latin, Aristocles)

Perhaps working in the early-mid 5th century BC

He was the son and pupil of Kleoetas (perhaps early 5th century BC). His son, also named Kleoetas, appears to have been an artist as well as an inventor or engineer, and devised the starting mechanism for the horse race at the Olympic Games:

"It was Cleoetas who originally devised the method of starting, and he appears to have been proud of the discovery, as on the statue at Athens he wrote the inscription:

'Who first invented the method of starting the horses at Olympia,
He made me, Cleoetas the son of Aristocles.'

It is said that after Cleoetas some further device was added to the mechanism by Aristeides."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 20, section 14.
  Pausanias mentioned a statuette of Zeus and a statue group of Zeus and Ganymede by Aristokles, son of Kleoetas, in the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia:

"Beside the Pelopium is a pillar of no great height with a small image of Zeus on it; one hand is outstretched. Opposite this are other offerings in a row, and likewise images of Zeus and Ganymedes. Homer's poem tells how Ganymedes was carried off by the gods to be wine-bearer to Zeus, and how horses were given to Tros in exchange for him [The Iliad, Book 5, line 265 onwards, and Book 20, line 231 onwards]. This offering was dedicated by the Thessalian Gnathis and made by Aristocles, pupil and son of Cleoetas."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 24, section 5.
 
Askaros of Thebes

Ἄσκαρος (Latin, Ascarus)

Late 6th - early 5th century BC

Known only from a single mention by Pausanias (Book 5, chapter 24, section 1), who named him as a pupil of Kanachos of Sikyon. It has been argued that the text is corrupt, and that he may have been a pupil of Aristokles.
  Pausanias wrote that Askaros made a statue of Zeus (probably of bronze) for the Thessalians, which stood between the Bouleterion (Council Chamber) and the Temple of Zeus in Olympia. He noted that its inscription stated that it was an offering from the spoils of Thessaly's victory over Phokis, and was of the opinion that it had been made before the Persian invasion of Greece (480-479 BC). His mention of "the so-called Sacred War" has confused some scholars, as this name has been given to four separate wars (595-585, 449-448, 356-346 and 339-338 BC).

"As you go from the Council Chamber to the great temple there stands on the left an image of Zeus, crowned as it were with flowers, and with a thunderbolt set in his right hand. It is the work of Ascarus of Thebes, a pupil of Canachus of Sicyon. The inscription on it says that it is a tithe from the war between Phocis and Thessaly.

If the Thessalians went to war with Phocis and dedicated the offering from Phocian plunder, this could not have been the so-called 'Sacred War', but must have been a war between the two states previous to the invasion of Greece by the Persians under their king [Xerxes I]."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 24, sections 1-2.
 
 
Sculptors B
Bathykles of Magnesia

Βαθυκλής

Mid-late 6th century BC

Bathykles is known only from a passage in which Pausanias described his "throne of the Amyklaian". His name is written "Βαθυκλέους δὲ Μάγνητος" (Bathykles of Magnetos), usually translated as Bathykles of Magnesia. Since Pausanias did not specify which Magnesia, it is usually assumed that he was from Magnesia on the Maeander (Μαγνησία ἡ πρὸς Μαιάνδρῳ or Μαγνησία ἡ ἐπὶ Μαιάνδρῳ) in Ionia, the most famous of the three places with this name, rather than the region of Magnesia (Μαγνησία) in Thessaly, or Magnesia ad Sipylum (Mαγνησία ἡ πρὸς Σιπύλῳ or Mαγνησία ἡ ἐπὶ Σιπύλου; today Manisa, Turkey) in Lydia, which may have been Pausanias' home city.

A proof that he was from Magnesia on the Maeander has been seen in Pausanias' statement that he made a statue of Artemis Leukophryene (Ἄρτεμις Λευκοφρυηνή), who was specially worshipped there.
  The only known work of Bathykles is the "throne of the Amyklaian" described in detail by Pausanias. Some scholars believe that the god of Amyklai (Ἀμύκλαι), on a hill (today Agia Kyriaki) 6 km south of Sparta, may have been a local deity who later became identified with Apollo. Thought to have been commissioned by the Spartans in the mid - late 6th century BC, the enormous marble monument, in the form of an altar-like stoa (see drawing below), is often referred to as the Throne of Apollo Amyklaios (Ό θρόνος του Άμυκλαίου Απόλλωνος). It was designed as a "seat" or extended pedestal for the colossal cult statue of the god, probably much older than the throne. Pausanias said the statue was not by Bathykles, and described it as being a primitive standing figure resembling a pillar (see coin below), like a gigantic herm, and perhaps an early form of kouros (see, for example, the Ram-Carrier of Thasos).

The throne incorporated statues and was covered with a large number of reliefs depicting mythological figures and scenes, including several showing the exploits of Herakles and his apotheosis, as well as episodes from the Trojan War. After completing the work, Bathykles also dedicated images (presumably statues) of the Graces and Artemis Leukophryene.

"Bathycles of Magnesia, who made the throne of the Amyclaean, dedicated, on the completion of the throne, Graces and an image of Artemis Leucophryene. Whose pupil this Bathycles was, and who was king of Lacedaemon when he made the throne, I pass over; but I saw the throne and will describe its details."

The reliefs appear to have been well-known beyond the Peloponnese:

"To describe the reliefs one by one in detail would have merely bored my readers; but to be brief and concise (for the greater number of them are not unknown either)..."

Among the reliefs was a band of dancers that Pausanias said depicted fellow Magnesians who worked with him on the project.

"On the very top of the throne has been wrought a band of dancers, the Magnesians who helped Bathycles to make the throne."

On the colossal cult statue of the god:

"The part of the throne where the god would sit is not continuous; there are several seats, and by the side of each seat is left a wide empty space, the middle, whereon the image stands, being the widest of them.

I know of nobody who has measured the height of the image, but at a guess one would estimate it to be as much as thirty cubits [around 14 metres]. It is not the work of Bathycles, being old and uncouth; for though it has face, feet, and hands, the rest resembles a bronze pillar. On its head it has a helmet, in its hands a spear and a bow."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 3, chapters 18-19. At Perseus Digital Library.
 
Herodotus wrote that when the Lacedaemonians (Spartans) sent representatives to Sardis to buy gold for the cult statue of Apollo on Mount Thornax, northeast of Sparta, the Lydian king Croesus gave it to them as a gift (Herodotus, Histories, Book 1, chapter 69, section 7). This probably occurred around 560-547 BC. Croesus' generosity to Sparta (and Delphi) was motivated by his search for Greek allies prior to his disastrous invasion of Persia. Around 700 years later Pausanias reported that the statue of Apollo at Thornax was similar in style to that at Amyklai, but that since the Spartans considered the latter to be more important they had used the gold from Croesus there.

"In Thornax, which you will reach as you go along, is an image of Apollo Pythaeus, made after the style of the one at Amyclae; the fashion of it I will describe when I come to speak of the latter. For in the eyes of the Lacedaemonians the cult of the Amyclaean is the more distinguished, so that they spent on adorning the image in Amyclae even the gold which Croesus the Lydian sent for Apollo Pythaeus."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 3, chapter 10, section 8. At Perseus Digital Library.

This has led to speculation that Bathykles may have been involved in obtaining the gold from Croesus, that the "adorning" of the image may refer to the making of the Amyklai throne, and that he may have gilded the statue. It has even been conjectured that Croesus may have sent Bathykles and the other Magnesian workmen to Lacedaemon. On the other hand it has been suggested that the Magnesians may have been among the many artists and intellectuals from East Greece thought to have fled westwards to escape the political upheavals following the Lydian conquest of Greek cities in Anatolia, and the Persian takeover soon after (see, for example, Endoios, Lydos, Panyassis and Herodotus).

See: J. G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece, translated with a commentary, Volume 3 (of 6), page 351. Macmillan and Co., London, 1898. At the Internet Archive.

Elsewhere, Pausanias compared the throne to that of Pheidias' colossal statue of Zeus at Olympia, and said that the Amyklaian edifice could be entered.

"It is impossible to go under the throne [at Olympia], in the way we enter the inner part of the throne at Amyclae. At Olympia there are screens constructed like walls which keep people out."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 11, section 4. At Perseus Digital Library.

He also wrote that the women of Sparta wove a new tunic for the Amyklaian statue every year (Book 3, chapter 16, section 2), in a similar way to the peplos made for the statue of Athena on the Athens Acropolis. A Lacedaemonian coin of the 3rd century BC shows the Amyklaian statue wearing a peplos.

See: Friedrich Imhoof-Blumer and Percy Gardner, A numismatic commentary on Pausanias, page 59 and plate N XVI. Richard Clay & Sons, London & Bungay, 1887. At the Internet Archive.

The sanctuary at Amyklai was first excavated in 1890 by the Greek archaeologist Christos Tsountas (Χρήστος Τσούντας, 1857-1934), and later by Adolf Furtwängler with E. Fiechter (1904), A. Skias with E. Fiechter (1907), Friderikos Versakis (1912), and E. Buschor with W. von Massov (1925). None of the reliefs of the throne have survived, but architectural members found at the site show that it was constructed using elements of the Ionic (rare in the Peloponnese during the Archaic period) and Doric orders. The finds are now in the Sparta Archaeological Museum. The only part of the throne left in situ is the foundation, around 1 metre high and 4 metres long. Furtwängler and others have made drawings as attempts to reconstruct the appearance of the throne (see drawing below).
 
A coin of Sparta thought to depict the statue of Apollo of Amyklai at My Favourite Planet

A coin of Lacedaemon (Sparta)
thought to depict the colossal
statue of Apollo Amyklaios.

Apollo standing, arms raised,
holding a spear and bow. His
helmeted head facing right,
his body in the form of a pillar.

British Museum.

Source: J. G. Frazer, Pausanias's
Description of Greece
, Volume 3,
fig. 52, page 356. Macmillan,
London, 1898.

See also: Friedrich Imhoof-Blumer
and Percy Gardner, A numismatic
commentary on Pausanias
,
page 59 and plate N XVII. Richard
Clay & Sons, London & Bungay,
1887. At the Internet Archive.
Adolf Furtwängler's conjectural reconstruction drawing of the Throne of Apollo Amyklaios by Bathykles at My Favourite Planet

Adolf Furtwängler's conjectural reconstruction drawing
of the Throne of Apollo Amyklaios made by Bathykles.

Source: Adolf Furtwängler, Meisterwerke der griechischen Plastik, "Der Thron
des Amykläischen Apollon", pages 689-719, Fig. 135, page 706. Giesecke &
Devrient, Leipzig / Berlin, 1893. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.
Bryaxis

Βρύαξις or Βρύασσις

Mid 4th century BC

He was a contemporary of Leochares, Skopas, Praxiteles and Timotheos (Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 7, Introduction, section 13; Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4).
  Pliny the Elder mentioned five colossal statues of gods by Bryaxis, among other colossal statues in Rhodes, including the Colossus by Chares.

"In addition to these, there are five colossal statues of the gods, which were made by Bryaxis."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 18. At Perseus Digital Library.

Pliny also mentioned bronze statues by Bryaxis of Aesculapius [Asklepios] and "Seleucus".

"Bryaxis executed in brass statues of Aesculapius and Seleucus; Boedas a figure in adoration; Baton, an Apollo and a Juno, which are in the Temple of Concord at Rome."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 19.

It has been suggested that the latter name should read "Salutem", implying that the statue depicted Hygieia, the goddess of health. Otherwise Seleucus could be Seleucus I Nicator (circa 358-281 BC), one of Alexander the Great's successors (see History of Pergamon). The works may have stood in Athens, since they are mentioned among other statues made there. A Boedas is mentioned elsewhere a son of Lysippos. It appears that all these works (by Bryaxis, Boedas and Baton) were taken to Rome and set up in the Temple of Concord in Regio VIII (Region 8).

 
A marble statue of Dionysus at Knidos (Κνίδος), Caria:

"There are also at Cnidos some other statues in marble, the productions of illustrious artists; a Father Liber [Dionysus] by Bryaxis..."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

Around 350 BC Bryaxis made sculptures for the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus with Leochares, Skopas and perhaps Praxiteles and Timotheos.

"For men whose artistic talents are believed to have won them the highest renown for all time, and laurels forever green, devised and executed works of supreme excellence in this building. The decoration and perfection of the different facades were undertaken by different artists in emulation with each other: Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas, Praxiteles, and, as some think, Timotheus. And the distinguished excellence of their art made that building famous among the seven wonders of the world."

Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 7, Introduction, section 13.

According to Pliny the Elder, Bryaxis made the sculptures on the north side of the monument:

"Scopas had for rivals and contemporaries, Bryaxis, Timotheus, and Leochares, artists whom we are bound to mention together, from the fact that they worked together at the Mausoleum; such being the name of the tomb that was erected by his wife Artemisia in honour of Mausolus, a petty king of Caria, who died in the second year of the hundred and seventh Olympiad. It was through the exertions of these artists more particularly, that this work came to be reckoned one of the Seven Wonders of the World...

The east side was sculptured by Scopas, the north by Bryaxis, the south by Timotheus, and the west by Leochares.

But, before their task was completed, Queen Artemisia died. They did not leave their work, however, until it was finished, considering that it was at once a memorial of their own fame and of the sculptor's art: and, to this day even, it is undecided which of them has excelled."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

Artemisia was the wife of Mausolus, thought to have died two years after him.
 
 
Sculptors C
Chares of Lindos

Χάρης ὁ Λίνδιος

4th century BC

Lindos, Rhodes

A pupil of Lysippos
  He made the Colossus of Rhodes, a colossal bronze statue of the sun god Helios which stood in the city of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Chares is said to have committed suicide after making an error in the estimate for the statue, and it was completed by Laches of Lindos. It was destroyed by an earthquake, and its remains were sold for scrap around 653 AD by the Saracen khalif Moavia after he captured Rhodes. It is said that nine hundred camels were required to remove the parts.

 
Pliny the Elder related the story of the Colossus of Rhodes when discussing other well-known Greek and Roman colossal statues:

"But that which is by far the most worthy of our admiration, is the colossal statue of the Sun, which stood formerly at Rhodes, and was the work of Chares the Lindian, a pupil of the above-named Lysippus; no less than seventy cubits in height.

This statue fifty-six years after it was erected, was thrown down by an earthquake; but even as it lies, it excites our wonder and admiration. Few men can clasp the thumb in their arms, and its fingers are larger than most statues. Where the limbs are broken asunder, vast caverns are seen yawning in the interior. Within it, too, are to be seen large masses of rock, by the weight of which the artist steadied it while erecting it.

It is said that it was twelve years before this statue was completed, and that three hundred talents were expended upon it; a sum raised from the engines of warfare which had been abandoned by King Demetrius [Demetrius Poliorcetes], when tired of the long-protracted siege of Rhodes.

In the same city there are other colossal statues, one hundred in number; but though smaller than the one already mentioned, wherever erected, they would, any one of them, have ennobled the place. In addition to these, there are five colossal statues of the gods, which were made by Bryaxis."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 18 ("The most celebrated statues in the city").

See also: the Colossus of Nero by Zenodoros
 
 
Sculptors D
Daidalos

(or Daedalus)

Δαίδαλος (perhaps from δαιδάλλω, to work artfully)

Mythical or legendary sculptor, architect, engineer and inventor; the archetypal "father of artists"
  For further information see the Daidalos page of the MFP People section.  
Daidalos of Sikyon

(Daedalus of Sicyon) Δαίδαλος

5th - 4th century BC

From Sikyon, northeastern Peloponnese

Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 3, section 4) wrote that he was the pupil and son of Patrocles.

Earlier modern scholars thought he lived in the 7th or 6th century BC, perhaps due to the remark by Pausanias (2, 4, 5) that the sculptors Dipoenos and Skyllis were held to be sons or pupils of Daedalus. Presumably, the reference was to the legendary Daidalos.
  "Daedalus, who is highly esteemed as a modeller in clay, made two brazen figures of youths using the body-scraper."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

A statue of an athlete using the body-scraper (strigil) to remove oil and sweat after his victory in a contest is known as an apoxyomenos. There are a number of extant examples, though none which can with certainty attributed to Daidalos.

Pausanias (10, 9, 6) mentions statues of Nike and Arkas ("who gave Arcadia its name") by Daidalos of Sikyon at Delphi. He also mentions statues of the victorious Olympic athletes Aristodemus (6, 3, 4) and Eupolemus of Elis (6, 3, 7).
 
Damatrios

Δαμάτριος

3rd - 2nd century BC

Rhodes
  Marble relief frieze from the funerary monument for the philosopher Hieronymus of Tlos, depicting philosophers debating and scenes in the underworld. Signed by Damatrios. 3rd - 2nd century BC. Found in 1900 at Trianta, Rhodes, Greece.

Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. Sk 1888.
 
Damophon

(Damophon of Messene) Δαμοφῶν

2nd century BC

From Messene (Μεσσήνη), southwestern Peloponnese
  According to Pausanias, Damophon made several statues for the cities in the Peloponnese.

Messene: Rhea, Artemis Laphria, Asklepios and his sons, Apollo, the Muses, Herakles, Epaminondas, Tyche, Artemis Phosphoros

Aigion: the cult statue for the Temple of Eileithyia; and statues of Asklepios and Hygieia for the Asklepieion

Megalopolis: statues of Athena und Artemis for the Temple of Demeter and Kore (Persephone); a cult statue of Hermes; a cult statue of Aphrodite

Lykosoura: a colossal statue group of Demeter and Despoina (Persephone), sitting on a throne, with Artemis and the Titan Anytos, for the sanctuary of Despoina at Lykosoura, Arkadia.

A large number of statue fragments from this group were discovered at the site, including the marble heads of Artemis, Demeter and Anytos, dated 190-180 BC. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. Nos. 1734, 1735 and 1736.

He also restored Pheidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia, after it had been damaged by an earthquake.
 
Demetrios of Alopece

Δημήτριος

Early 4th century BC

From Alopece, a district of Athens
  Ancient authors remarked on the lifelike realism of Demetrios' statues, in contrast to the idealized works by other sculptors such as Kresilas.  
Diogenes of Athens

Διογένης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος (Latin, Diogenes Atheniensis)

Late 1st century BC

From Athens, working in Rome during the reign of Augustus (27 BC - 14 AD).
  According to Pliny (Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4), Diogenes made sculptures, including caryatids and the pediment, for the exterior of the Pantheon in Rome, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa (circa 63-12 BC). The Pantheon was badly damaged by two fires in the city, and it was later rebuilt during the reign of Hadrian (117-138 AD). The pediment, with the dedicatory inscription of Agrippa was reused, but the enormous columns supporting it were made of porphyry imported by Hadrian from the imperial quarries in Egypt.  
Dipoenos and Skyllis

(Dipoenus and Scyllis) Δίποινος, Σκύλλις

Early 6th century

From Crete, they worked at Sikyon, northeastern Peloponnese.

Dipoenus and Scyllis were always mentioned together by ancient authors (Pliny the Elder, Pausanias). Pausanias mentions ebony statues by them and refers to them as "pupils" or "sons" of Daidalos (Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 15, section 1), perhaps in the same way as doctors were often referred to as "sons of Asklepios", the Greek god of healing (see also Endoios).
  "The first artists who distinguished themselves in the sculpture of marble, were Dipoenus and Scyllis, natives of the Isle of Crete. At this period the Medians were still in power, and Cyrus [circa 600-530 BC] had not begun to reign in Persia; their date being about the fiftieth Olympiad.

They afterwards repaired to Sicyon, a state which for a length of time was the adopted country of all such pursuits as these. The people of Sicyon had made a contract with them for the execution of certain statues of the gods; but, before completing the work, the artists complained of some injustice being done them, and retired to Aetolia. Immediately upon this, the state was afflicted with sterility and famine, and dreadful consternation was the result.

Upon enquiry being made as to a remedy for these evils, the Pythian Apollo [the Delphic Oracle] made answer, that Dipoenus and Scyllis must complete the statues of the gods; an object which was attained at the cost of great concessions and considerable sums of money. The statues were those of Apollo, Diana [Artemis], Hercules, and Minerva [Athena]; the last of which was afterwards struck by lightning.

Ambracia too, Argos, and Cleonae, were filled with productions of the sculptor Dipoenus.

All these artists, however, used nothing but the white marble of the Isle of Paros..."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

Pausanias remarked:

"On the road from Corinth to Argos is a small city Cleonae... Here there is a sanctuary of Athena, and the image is a work of Scyllis and Dipoenus. Some hold them to have been the pupils of Daedalus, but others will have it that Daedalus took a wife from Gortyn, and that Dipoenus and Scyllis were his sons by this woman."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 15, section 1.
 
 
Sculptors E
Endoios

Ἔνδοιος (Latin, Endoeus)

Mid-late 6th century BC

Athens, perhaps an immigrant from Ionia
  Pausanias mentioned a statue of seated Athena by Endoios on the Athens Acropolis, dedicated by Kallias (around 564 BC), thought to be the Athenian aristocrat and opponent of the tyrant Peisistratos mentioned by Herodotus (Histories, Book 6, chapter 121). He does not specify the location of the statue, mentioning it only in passing, between an exposition on statues near the south wall of the Acropolis and a description of the Erchtheion at the north side.

"Endoeus was an Athenian by birth and a pupil of Daedalus, who also, when Daedalus was in exile because of the death of Calos, followed him to Crete. Made by him is a statue of Athena seated, with an inscription that Callias dedicated the image, but Endoeus made it."

Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 26, section 4.

 
 
A marble statue of seated Athena, found in 1821 below the Erechtheion on the North Slope of the Athens Acropolis and dated around 525 BC, is believed by some scholars to be the work by Endoios mentioned by Pausanias; it has even been named the "Endoios Athena" (see photo and drawing below). The fragmentary, badly worn figure, wearing a long chiton (tunic), is missing its head, forearms and hands, but is recognizable as Athena from the Aegis (with holes for the attachment of bronze snakes around the edge) over her shoulders and the Gorgoneion (see Medusa) on her breast. It is earliest extant identifiable statue of Athena from Athens, perhaps depicting the goddess as Athena Ergane (Ἐργάνη, the Worker), who originally held a distaff and spindle. Acropolis Museum. Inv. No. Acr. 625. Height (including plinth) 147 cm.

A number of early western travellers in Greece, including Richard Chandler, Edward Dodwell and Sir William Gell, reported seeing a statue standing in a wall near what is now known as the "Mycenaean Fountain" on the North Slope of the Acropolis. Chandler, who saw it in 1765, thought it depicted Isis, and Dodwell merely noted seeing "a headless female statue of white marble, sitting on a thronos. It is headless, and much ruined". However, Gell, who travelled around Greece three times between 1801 and 1812 (see Athens Acropolis gallery page 13), recognized it as "a very ancient statue of Minerva", and made a drawing of it appearing much as it does today, built into a late Roman wall thought to have been constructed using spolia around 270-300 AD, around the same time as the Beulé Gate.

See: Patricia A. Marx, Acropolis 625 (Endoios Athena) and the rediscovery of its findspot. Hesperia, Volume 70, No. 2 (April - June 2001), pages 221-254. The American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA). At jstor.org.
 
It is thought unlikely that this Endoios was a contemporary of the legendary Daidalos, but perhaps the statue was made in what was considered a primitive style, comparable to the "Daedalic style" of the 7th century BC (see the Daidalos page). Dipoenos and Skyllis, sculptors of the early 6th century BC, were also described by Pausanias as "pupils" or "sons" of Daidalos (see above). The "Endoios Athena" in the Acropolis Museum, however, is not Daedalic. It seems that both Pausanias and Pliny the Elder believed that works by Endoios were very ancient, but the Late Archaic sculptor discussed by modern scholars was working just a couple of generations before the advent of the Classical period.

Pausanias ascribed to Endoios a colossal wooden cult statue of Athena Polias in her temple in Erythrai (Ἐρυθραί), Ionia (north of Çeşme, western Turkey), and marble statues of the Graces and the Seasons outside the temple:

"There is also in Erythrae a temple of Athena Polias and a huge wooden image of her sitting on a throne; she holds a distaff in either hand and wears a firmament on her head. That this image is the work of Endoeus we inferred, among other signs, from the workmanship, and especially from the white marble images of Graces and Seasons that stand in the open before the entrance."

Description of Greece, Book 7, chapter 5, section 9.

According to Pausanias (Book 8, chapter 45, section 4 - chapter 47, section 3), a sculptor named Endoios made the ivory cult statue of Athena Alea and the colossal tusks of the Kalydonian Boar for the temple of the goddess in Tegea (Τεγέα), Arcadia, which were later taken to Rome by Augustus and set up in the Forum of Augustus. However, he also mentioned that the sanctuary of Athena Alea had been "utterly destroyed by a fire" (395/394 BC), and that Skopas designed the new temple, thought to have been built 345-335 BC (after the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus). Either the statue and the tusks had survived the fire, or were made by a later artist of the same name, or else the attribution of the works to Endoios may have been myth-making/propaganda.

Pliny the Elder expressed doubt concerning a report by the Roman politician Mucianus that the cult statue in the temple of Artemis in Ephesus was made of vine wood by Endoios, and noted that all other writers said the statue was made of ebony:

"It is believed that ebony lasts an extremely long time, and also cypress and cedar, a clear verdict about all timbers being given in the temple of Diana at Ephesus, inasmuch as though the whole of Asia was building it it took 120 years [CXX annis] to complete, it is agreed that its roof is made of beams of cedar.

But as to the actual statue of the goddess there is some dispute, all the other writers saying that it is made of ebony, but one of the people who have most recently seen it and written about it, Mucianus, who was three times consul, states that it is made of the wood of the vine, and has never been altered although the temple has been restored seven times; and that this material was chosen by Endoeus – Mucianus actually specifies the name of the artist, which for my part I think surprising, as he assigns to the statue an antiquity that makes it older than not only Father Liber [Dionysus] but Minerva [Athena] also.

He adds that nard is poured into it through a number of apertures so that the chemical properties of the liquid may nourish the wood and keep the joins together – as to these indeed I am rather surprised that there should be any – and that the folding doors are made of cypress wood, and the whole of the timber looks like new wood after having lasted nearly 400 years [CCCC prope annis]. It is also worth noting that the doors were kept for four years in a frame of glue. Cypress was chosen for them because it is the one kind of wood which beyond all others retains its polish in the best condition for all time."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 16, chapter 79.

The Archaic Temple of Artemis, completed around 550 BC, was was destroyed by a fire in 356 BC. Its replacement was finally completed in early 3rd century BC. The surviving Roman period statues of Artemis Ephesia are thought to be copies of the cult statue, the original form of which may even predate the arrival of the Greeks in the area. As in the case of Tegea, the attribution to Endoios may have been local propaganda.

The marble base of a grave relief, found in the Plaka, Athens and dated around 525-500 BC, is inscribed in Ionic lettering with an elegiac couplet for a foreign woman named Lampito and the signature of Endoios. Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 10643 (see photo below).

An inscribed pillar that supported a lost votive sculpture dedicated by Ophsios on the Athens Acropolis, 530-500 BC, signed by Endoios and Philergos (Work-lover or Energetic), thought to be Samian sculptor who worked in Endoios’ workshop. Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 6249. The base has been associated with a fragmentary kore in the Acropolis Museum, Inv. No. Acr. 602, which is stylistically similar to the "Endoios Athena".

The "Neilonides base", a rectangular marble base of a funerary kouros statue, around 530-520 BC, inscribed with a metrical epitaph for the deceased Neilonides and signed by Endoios, was discovered in 1922 by the Greek archaeologist Alexandros Philadelpheus built into the Themistoklean Wall, southwest of the Dipylos, Kerameikos. The front side of the base has two inscriptions in the Attic alphabet, the dedication and the signature Ε [ν] δοιος κ [α] ὶ τόνδ ἐπόε, written vertically. Both were deliberately erased, perhaps at the time they were built into the wall. On the inscribed front are the faint remains of a painting of a seated male figure, perhaps representing Neilonides, his father Neilon or the god Hades (Plouton). It has been suggested that the painting may be by Endoios himself. Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 12870. Inscription IG I(3) 1214.

See: Catherine M. Keesling, Endoios's painting from the Themistoklean Wall: A reconstruction. Hesperia, Volume 68, No. 4 (October - December 1999), pages 509-548. American School of Classical Studies at Athens. At Georgetown University Library, Washington DC.

The "Potter's Relief", a marble votive relief of a potter, shown in profile sitting on a diphros (δίφρος, stool) and holding two kylikes in his left hand, was found on the Athens Acropolis and dated around 520-510 BC. The damaged and now incomplete inscription (IG I(3) 764), is thought to include the signature of Endoios and a dedication by Pamphaios or Euphronios. The signature has been speculatively restored as Ἐν [δοιος εποιεσ] εν. Acropolis Museum. Inv. No. Acr. 1332.

It has been suggested that a fragmentary signature on the shield of one of the Giants on the Gigantomachy from the north frieze of the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi is that of Endoios. However, the inscription, like that on the "Potter's Relief", was altered in Antiquity, and the sculptor's name is almost entirely lost. The north and east friezes have also been controversially attributed to his contemporary Aristion of Paros (see the Aristion of Paros page).

The Endoios Athena statue, Acropolis Museum, Athens at My Favourite Planet

The "Endoios Athena", a marble statue
of seated Athena attributed to Endoios.

Around 525 BC. Found in 1821 below
the Erechtheion on the North Slope of
the Athens Acropolis. Insular marble.
Height including the plinth 147 cm.

Acropolis Museum. Inv. No. Acr. 625.

Photo © Konstanze Gundudis
 
Drawing of the Endoios Athena statue at My Favourite Planet

The "Endoios Athena" statue,
after a drawing made by the artist
George Scharf in Athens in 1840.

Source: A. S. Murray, A history of Greek sculpture, from the earliest times down
to the age of Pheidias
, fig. 35, page 197.
John Murray, London, 1880.

Original drawing, British Museum,
Inv. No. 2011,5012.55.

Scharf, who later became the director
of the National Portrait Gallery, London,
also travelled through Lycia with the
archaeologist Charles Fellows in 1840.
See A brief history of Kastellorizo.
The signature of the sculptor Endoios at My Favourite Planet

A marble base of a funerary relief for a foreign woman named Lampito,
inscribed with an elegiac couplet and the signature of the sculptor Endoios.

Around 525-500 BC. Found in the Plaka, Athens.

ἐ̣[νθά]δε Φ̣ι̣— — — —ος κατ̣έθε-
κε θανο͂σαν ⋮ Λ[αμπι]τὸ αἰδοίεν γε͂ς ἀπ-
πατροΐες. ⋮ Ἔνδοιος ἐποίεσεν.

Here lies buried the dead L[ampi]to,
an honorable woman, far from her
homeland. Endoios made [it].

Inscription IG I² 978 (also IG I(3) 1380).

Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 10643.
Euphron

Εὔφρων

5th century BC

From Paros, he worked in Athens
  According to extant sculpture pedestals, he made votive reliefs. A bearded head of a herm dedicated in Piraeus has also survived.

Marble head of a bearded god (perhaps Hermes or Zeus), thought to be the head of a herm dedicated by Python from Abdera, Thrace, a work of the Parian sculptor Euphron. Pentelic marble. 450-440 BC. Found in a sanctuary of Eetionia in Piraeus, Greece, in 1886.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 332.
 
Euphranor of Corinth

(also known as Euphranor of Isthmos)

Ἐυφράνωρ (the one who delights, from Ευφραίνω, to delight)

Sculptor, painter and theorist, who wrote treatises on symmetry and colours.

Working around 390-325 BC

From Corinth, worked mostly in Athens

He was a contemporary of Lysippos and Praxiteles, and a pupil of Ariston, one of the sons of the painter Aristeides of Thebes. He was the teacher of the painters Antidotus and Charmantides.

Pliny the Elder called him Euphranor of Isthmia, and placed the height of his career during the 104th Olympiad, as a painter along with Cydias, Antidotus, a pupil of Euphranor, teacher of Nikias of Athens. He also named Charmantides as one of his pupils (Natural History, Book 35, chapter 40). As a sculptor in bronze, he is named along with Praxiteles, during the 104th Olympiad (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19).

It has been pointed out by some modern scholars that the chronology of Pliny's account of Euphranor is confused, and that there may have been two artists with this name, one possibly the grandfather of the other.

See:

Olga Palagia, Euphranor. Brill, Leiden, 1980.

Andrew Stewart, Two Independents: Euphranor and Silanion, in One Hundred Greek Sculptors, Their Careers and Extant Works. At Perseus Digital Library.
  "Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting."

Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 12, chapter 10, section 6. At Perseus Digital Library.

Pliny the Elder mentioned a number of bronze statues by Euphranor:

"The statue of Alexander Paris [the Trojan Prince] is the work of Euphranor: it is much admired, because we recognize in it, at the same moment, all these characteristics; we see him as the umpire between the goddesses [the Judgement of Paris], the paramour of Helen, and yet the slayer of Achilles.

We have a Minerva [Athena], too, by Euphranor, at Rome, known as the 'Catulina', and dedicated below the Capitol, by Q. Lutatius [Q. Lutatius Catulus]; also a figure of Good Success [Bonus Eventus], holding in the right hand a patera, and in the left an ear of corn and a poppy. There is also a Latona [Leto] by him, in the Temple of Concord, with the new-born infants Apollo and Diana in her arms.

He also executed some brazen chariots with four and two horses, and a Cliduchus of beautiful proportions; as also two colossal statues, one representing Virtue, the other Greece; and a figure of a female lost in wonder and adoration: with statues of Alexander and Philip in chariots with four horses."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19. At Perseus Digital Library.

Pliny also included Euphranor in his account of painters, adding that as a sculptor he had made colossal statues as well as sculptures in marble and reliefs on drinking vessels. His work was highly detailed, with particular attention to symmetry, and the heads of his statues were smaller in porportion to the bodies. Statues by other Hellenistic sculptors such as Lysippos were also said to have had proportionally smaller heads in order to create the illusion that the figures were larger than they actually were.

"... in the hundred and fourth Olympiad, Euphranor, the Isthmian, distinguished himself far beyond all others, an artist who has been already mentioned in our account of the statuaries. He executed some colossal figures also, and some statues in marble, and he chased some drinking-vessels; being studious and laborious in the highest degree, excellent in every branch, and at all times equal to himself.

This artist seems to have been the first to represent heroes with becoming dignity, and to have paid particular attention to symmetry. Still, however, in the generality of instances, he has made the body slight in proportion to the head and limbs. He composed some treatises also upon symmetry and colours.

His works [paintings] are, an Equestrian Combat; the Twelve Gods; and a Theseus; with reference to which he remarked that the Theseus of Parrhasius had been fed upon roses, but his own upon beef. There are also at Ephesus some famous pictures by him; an Ulysses, in his feigned madness, yoking together an ox and a horse; Men, in an attitude of meditation, wearing the pallium [perhaps philosophers]; and a Warrior, sheathing his sword."

(Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 35, chapter 40. At Perseus Digital Library.
 
 
The Equestrian Combat, the Twelve Gods, and the Theseus mentioned by Pliny are probably the paintings by Euphranor seen by Pausanias in the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios in the Athens Agora (Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 3, sections 3-4). Pliny's "Equestrian Combat" would then be the cavalry fight during the second Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), a copy of which Pausanias also saw in Mantinea in Arcadia (see Athens Acropolis gallery page 8).

"Here is a picture of the exploit, near Mantinea, of the Athenians who were sent to help the Lacedaemonians. Xenophon among others has written a history of the whole war — the taking of the Cadmea, the defeat of the Lacedaemonians at Leuctra, how the Boeotians invaded the Peloponnesus, and the contingent sent to the Lacedacmonians from the Athenians. In the picture is a cavalry battle, in which the most famous men are, among the Athenians, Grylus the son of Xenophon, and in the Boeotian cavalry, Epaminondas the Theban. These pictures were painted for the Athenians by Euphranor, and he also wrought the Apollo surnamed Patrous (Paternal) in the temple hard by. And in front of the temple is one Apollo made by Leochares; the other Apollo, called Averter of evil, was made by Calamis. They say that the god received this name because by an oracle from Delphi he stayed the pestilence which afflicted the Athenians at the time of the Peloponnesian War."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 3, section 4. At Perseus Digital Library.

For images of the Twelve Olympian Gods (the Dodekatheon, Δωδεκάθεον), see Dionysus and Demeter and Persephone part 2. Pausanias commented that the painting of "Theseus, Democracy and Demos" represented the popular legend that Theseus introduced democracy to Athens.

Several paintings and sculptures in museums, mostly Roman copies, have been associated with Euphranor.

The "Antikythera Youth", a bronze statue of a god or hero (see below).

Head of Alexander the Great. Pentelic marble. 2nd century AD "copy after a Greek original from the late 4th century BC", attributed to Euphranor (Pliny, Book 34, chapter 19). Barracco Museum, Rome. Inv. No. MB 157.78.

The "Alexander Rondanini" marble statue, thought to represent Alexander the Great and to be part of a Roman period copy of a bronze statue group by Euphranor, mentioned by Pliny (Book 34, chapter 19), depicting King Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander in four-horse chariots. Glyptothek, Munich. Inv. No. GL 298.

Part of a headless marble statue of a robed Apollo, discovered near the site of the Temple of Apollo Patroos (4th century BC), south of the Stoa of Zeus in the Athens Agora, and dated to the late 4th century BC, has been tentatively identified as the work by Euphranor, mentioned by Pausanias (Book 1, chapter 3, section 4) as standing in the temple. It is thought that the figure originally held a lyre.

A Classicistic bronze statue of Artemis, found in Piraeus and dated to the mid 4th century BC, has been attributed to Euphranor. Piraeus Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 4647.

Several extant Roman period sculptures are thought to be replicas of a statue of Paris by Euphranor. See, for example, a marble head in Hamburg.
 
The Antikythera Youth, a bronze statue of a young male at My Favourite Planet

The "Antikythera Youth", also known as the "Antikythera Ephebe"
(Έφηβος των Αντικυθήρων), a bronze statue of a god or hero.
Paris holding the Golden Apple of Discord in his raised right hand
in his raised right hand in his raised right hand or Perseus holding
the head of Medusa are among the many suggested identifications.

Around 340-330 BC. Probably made in a Peloponnesian workshop. Euphranor
is among those suggested as the sculptor. Found in 1900 by sponge divers in
the area of the ancient Antikythera shipwreck, off the island of Antikythera
(Ἀντικύθηρα), Greece. It has since been restored twice. Height 194 cm.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. X 13396.
Euthykartides

Ευθυκαρτίδης

Around 650-600 BC

From Naxos
  Euthykartides is known only from an inscribed signature on a marble statue base, dated to around 650-600 BC, found in Delos in 1885. Delos Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. A 728.

ευθυκαρτιδες ⋮ μ´α ⋮ νεθεκε ⋮ ηο Ναησιοσ ⋮ ποιεσας

(Euthykartides m'anetheke ho nahsios poiesas)

Euthykartides the Naxian dedicated me, having made [me].

Inscription IG XII 5, 2.

It is one of the earliest surviving signatures of a Greek sculptor. Part of a kouros statue also in the Delos museum (Inv. No. A 4052) may belong to the base.

See photos of the base and kouros on the Medusa page.

See:

Jeffrey M. Hurwit, Artists and signatures in ancient Greece, pages 3-10. Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Euthykartides' feet: Reflections on signatures, status, and originality in Greek art. Video of a lecture by Jeffrey Hurwit at the Athens Centre, Athens, on 23th July 2013. At Youtube.
 
Evandros of Veroea

Εὔανδρος, Euandros

Also referred to as Evander of Veroea

Second half of the 1st century BC

From Veroea (Βέροια), Macedonia

He was the son of Evandros of Veroea, and possibly the father of Adymos of Veroea.

It is thought that Evandros and Adymos belonged to a family of sculptors who undertook commissions around Macedonia and Thessaly. They both made grave monuments and, unusually, signed their name on them; most sculptors of the time remain anonymous. This suggests that they had a high reputation in the region.
  The remains of two grave monuments with reliefs signed by Evandros have been discovered in northern Greece.

See further information and photos
on the Evandros of Veroea page.
 
 
Sculptors G
Glaukias of Aegina

Γλαυκίας (Latin, Glaucias)

Early 5th century BC

From Aegina
  At Olympia Glaukias of Aegina made a bronze chariot and a portrait statue of "Gelon of Gela, son of Deinomenes", who won a victory in the 73rd Olympic Games (488 BC). This is usually taken to be, Gelon, the tyrant of Sicily, but Pausanias had his doubts:

"As regards the chariot of Gelon, I did not come to the same opinion about it as my predecessors, who hold that the chariot is an offering of the Gelon who became tyrant in Sicily. Now there is an inscription on the chariot that it was dedicated by Gelon of Gela, son of Deinomenes, and the date of the victory of this Gelon is the seventy third Festival.

But the Gelon who was tyrant of Sicily took possession of Syracuse when Hybrilides was archon at Athens, in the second year of the seventy second Olympiad [491 BC], when Tisicrates of Croton won the foot-race. Plainly, therefore, he would have announced himself as of Syracuse, not Gela. The fact is that this Gelon must be a private person, of the same name as the tyrant, whose father had the same name as the tyrant's father. It was Glaucias of Aegina who made both the chariot and the portrait-statue of Gelon."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 9, section 4-5).

Around two decades later Onatas and Kalamis were to make bronze statues to commomerate the Olympic victories of Gelon's brother and successor Hieron I (see Onatas).
 
 
"By the side of the chariot of Gelon is dedicated a statue of Philon, the work of the Aeginetan Glaucias. About this Philon Simonides the son of Leoprepes composed a very neat elegiac couplet:

'My fatherland is Corcyra, and my name is Philon; I am
The son of Glaucus, and I won two Olympic victories for boxing.'"

Pausanias, Book 6, chapter 9, section 9.

As Pausanias continued his description of Olympia, he reported bronze statues of the boxer Glaucus of Carystus (Book 6, chapter 10, sections 1-3) and the "great Theagenes" of Thasos (Book 6, chapter 11), who won several victories in boxing, the pankration and long-distance running at the Olympic Games and other games around Greece. Earlier (Book 6, chapter 6, section 5), Pausanias had mentioned Theagenes' boxing victory at the 75th Olympic Games (480 BC). The whole of chapter 11 is devoted to anecdotes concerning the life and career of Theagenes, including several miraculous tales involving statues.
 
Glykon of Athens

Γλύκων Ἀθηναῖος

Late 2nd - early 3rd century AD
  Nothing is known abour Glykon apart from an inscribed signature on the colossal "Farnese Hercules" statue in Naples: Γλύκων Ἀθηναῖοc ἐποίει (Glykon of Athens made it; the sigma (Σ) of Athinaios is rendered as C).

The statue, also known as "Hercules at rest" or the "Weary Herakles", was found in 1546 in the Baths of Caracalla, Rome. The work of the late 2nd - early 3rd century AD is thought to be a copy of a Greek bronze original perhaps made around 325 BC by Lysippos or one of his circle. Glykon may therefore have been one of many copyists making reproductions of Greek works for the Roman market. Copyists' workshops are known to have existed at places such as Baiae in the Bay of Naples.

National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
Inv. No. 6001.
Inscription IG XIV 1238 (IGUR IV 1556).
 
Gorgias

Γοργίας

Working in Athens, late 6th century BC

Perhaps from Sparta (Laconia)
  Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19) mentioned "Gorgias the Laconian" (Gorgias Lacon), along with Agelades (Ageladas of Argos) and Callon, as sculptors working in bronze in the 87th Olympiad (430-427 BC). However, a number of signatures by Gorgias found on statue bases in Athens, all dedications set up on Acropolis, are dated to the last quarter of 6th century BC. Of these three, perhaps four, supported marble statues.

See a marble statue base from the Athens Acropolis, inscribed with the signature of Gorgias below.
 
The signature of the sculptor Gorgias at My Favourite Planet

Part of a marble statue base inscribed with a dedication by Hegesandros
to Athena Parthenos and the signature of the sculptor Gorgias. The base,
restored from a number of fragments, supported a statuette, perhaps
of a horse or a horse and rider.

Around 510-500 BC. Fragments found between 1877 and 1886
on the Athens Acropolis, east of the Erechtheion. Pentelic marble.

Ἑγέσαν[δρος]
ἀ̣νέθεκ̣[εν]
τἀθεναίαι.

[Γ]οργίας : ἐπο[ίεσεν].

Inscription IG I³ 637 (also IG I² 490; Antony E. Raubitschek,
Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis [DAA], No. 65).

Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 6244.
 
Sculptors H
Hegesias

Ἡγησίας

5th century BC

It has been suggested that there may have been as many as three sculptors named Hegesias, while some scholars consider him to be the same person as Hegias of Athens.
  See Hegias of Athens below.  
Hegias of Athens or Hegesias

Hegias (Ἑγίας or Ἡγίας) or Hegesias (Ἡγησίας)

Early 5th century BC, working in bronze around 490-460 BC

Athens

Hegias may have been the teacher of Pheidias (see Pheidias for further details).

Hegias is mentioned by Pausanias and Pliny the Elder, while Hegesias is mentioned by Quintilian, Lucian of Samosata and Pliny. It has been suggested that there may have been as many as three sculptors named Hegesias, while other scholars consider him to be the same person as Hegias.
  Pausanias wrote that Hegias of Athens was a contemporary of Onatas of Aegina and Ageladas of Argos, both thought to be working in the early 5th century BC.

"Onatas was contemporary with Hegias of Athens and Ageladas of Argos."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 8, chapter 42, section 10. At Perseus Digital Library.

Hegesias was mentioned by Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, circa 35-100 AD), who described the works of Kallon (probably Kallon of Aegina, late 6th - early 5th century BC) and Hegesias as crude and stiff:

"The art of Callon and Hegesias is somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans..."

Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 12, chapter 10 (see the full quote under Kalamis 1).

 
Lucian of Samosata (Λουκιανὸς ὁ Σαμοσατεύς, circa 125 - after 180 AD) mentioned Hegesias along with Kritios and Nesiotes (both early 5th century BC), and his description of their works appears to indicate the Severe style of early Classical sculpture:

"... the clean-cut, sinewy, hard, firmly outlined productions of Hegesias, or the school of Critius and Nesiotes."

Lucian, The rhetorician’s vade mecum (Ῥητόρων Διδάσκαλος).

Pliny the Elder mentioned Hegias as a sculptor in bronze and a contemporary of Pheidias, Alkamenes, Critias (Kritios) and Nesiotes, in the 83rd Olympiad. Later in the same chapter mentioned celebrated works by Hegias and Hegesias.

"Hegias is celebrated for his Minerva [Athena] and his King Pyrrhus, his youthful Celetizontes [κελητιζοντες, boy jockeys], and his statues of Castor and Pollux, before the Temple of Jupiter Tonans [on the Capitoline Hill, Rome]; Hegesias, for his Hercules, which is at our colony of Parium [in Mysia, on the Hellespont]."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

As is often the case with Pliny, scholars have seen the text as confused or "suspect", due to errors made either by Pliny himself or by later editors or copyists. Pheidias and Alkamenes have been placed at the same date as Hegias, Kritios and Nesiotes who are thought to have been working earlier. He may have referred to a number of Greek sources when considering the works of Hegias, one or more of which may have named him as Hegesias. Hegias (Ἑγίας or Ἡγίας) is thought to have been an abbreviation or variant of the Ionic and Attic name Hegesias (Ἡγησίας). Agasias (Ἀγησίας, as in Agasias of Ephesus) may have been the Doric version of the name.

The German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) may have been the first to point out the problem concerning Pliny's mention of a statue of King Pyrrhus (Πύρρος) by Hegias. Even by Pliny's own reckoning (e.g. Book 8, chapter 6), King Pyrrhus I of Epirus (319/318-272 BC) lived too late to have been portrayed by the Hegias of the 5th century BC. The statue was perhaps made by a later Hegias or some other artist, or the figure may have been part of a statue group depicting Athena supporting the mythical hero Pyrrhus (also known as Neoptolemos), son of Achilles.

Winckelmann also speculated that the statues of Castor and Pollux at the top of the stairway up to the Capitol (see the Dioskouroi page) were those by Hegias. However, this is considered very doubtful.

Earlier in the same chapter Pliny also mentioned statues of keletizontes by Kanachos (probably Kanachos the Elder).

A bronze horse known as "il Cavallo di Vicolo delle Palme", found in 1849 in Trastevere, Rome, and now in the Capitoline Museums, is thought by some scholars to be part of the Granikos Monument statue group by Lysippos, commissioned by Alexander the Great, while others believe it may be a work of Hegias.

See the signature of Hegias on a marble base from the Athens Acropolis below.
 
The signature of the sculptor Hegias at My Favourite Planet

Fragments of a marble base of a bronze statue, inscribed with a dedication by Aristion and Pasias,
and the signature of the sculptor Hegias, thought to be the teacher of Pheidias. The base shows
signs of damage by fire, which perhaps occurred during the Persian sack of Athens in 480 BC. *

Around 500-475 BC. From the Athens Acropolis.

Ἀριστίον ⋮ καὶ Πασίας ⋮ ἀνεθέ-
τεν ⋮ τε͂ι Ἀθεναίαι ⋮ ἀπαρχὲν
Λαμπτρε͂.
Ἑγίας ⋮ ἐποίεσεν.

Inscription IG I³ 702 (Antony E. Raubitschek,
Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis [DAA], No. 94).

Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. Nos. EM 6299 and EM 6247.

* See: Charles Hill Morgan, Pheidias and Olympia, page 313.
In: Hesperia, Volume 21 (1952), Issue 4, Pages 295-339. At jstor.org.
Heliodoros of Rhodes

Ἡροφῶν

Active around 100 BC

From Rhodes
  The statue group of Pan and Daphnis in Palazzo Altemps, National Museum of Rome, is thought to be a Roman period copy of an original work by Heliodoros.  
Hephaistos

Ἥφαιστος

Mythological

Hephaistos, the son of Zeus and Hera, was the Greek god of metalworkers and sculptors, the archetypal maker of fine and extravagant metal objects, including armour for gods and heroes. He was also the god of fire and volcanoes, his Roman equivalent being Vulcanus.
  See the Hephaistos page for further information.  
Hermippos

Ἡέρμιππος

Working in Athens around the end of the 6th century BC
  Hermippos is not mentioned in ancient literary sources and is known only from his signature on fragments of a statue base found on the Athens Acropolis (see below).  
The signature of the sculptor Hermippos at My Favourite Planet

Part of a marble statue base inscribed with a dedication by a
woman named Psakythe and the signature of the sculptor
Hermippos. It originally supported three bronze statuettes.

Probably around 510-500 BC. Two fragments from the Athens Acropolis: the first
found on 22 April 1840, east of the Parthenon; the second found in 1888, near the
southwest corner of the Parthenon. A third, small fragment from the left corner of the
base is now lost. Grey marble. Present height 10 cm, length 44 cm, width 28 cm.

[Φ]σακύθε : ἀνέθεκεν.
ℎέρμιππος : ἐποίεσεν.

Psakythe dedicated it.
Hermippos made it.

Inscription IG I³ 656 (also IG I² 493; Antony E. Raubitschek,
Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis [DAA], No. 81).

Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 6250.
Herophon

Ἡροφῶν

2nd - 1st centuries BC

From Macedonia

Son of Anaxagoras
  An inscription found in Olympia states that Herophon made a sculpture of Zeus for the Eleans and other Greeks honouring Rome.  
 
Sculptors I
Iktinos

Ικτίνος (Latin, Ictinus)

Architect and sculptor

Mid 5th century BC

Athens
  Iktinos and Kallikrates designed the Parthenon in Athens (Plutarch, Parallel lives, Pericles, chapter 13, section 4).

He was the also architect of the Temple of Apollo at Bassai (see below) and the Telesterion, the temple of Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis (Vitruvius, Book 7, Introduction, section 16).

See Iktinos under architects for further information.
 
 
Sculptors K
Kalamis (5th century BC)

Κάλαμις (Latin, Calamis)

A Greek artist named Kalamis was mentioned by a number of ancient authors of the Roman period. Modern scholars believe that these references point to at least two, perhaps three different artists:

Kalamis 1,
a sculptor of the 5th century BC;

Kalamis 2,
a sculptor of the 4th century BC;

Kalamis 3,
an artist working in silver, perhaps Kalamis 2.
  For further details, see the Kalamis page.  
Kallikrates

Καλλικράτης (Latin, Callicrates)

Architect and sculptor

5th century BC

Athens
  According to Plutarch (Parallel lives, Pericles, chapter 13, section 4), the only ancient author to mention him, Kallikrates designed the Parthenon with Iktinos, and constructed the middle long wall between Athens and Piraeus during the period of Pericles' political power.

He was the architect of the Ionic Temple of Athena Nike (427-421 BC) on the Athens Acropolis, and perhaps the Ilissos Temple, Athens, thought to be the Temple of Artemis Agrotera (circa 435-430 BC).

Athenian decrees on a marble stele, circa 427-424 BC, concerning the Athena Nike Temple: the selection and payment of the priestess, and the construction of a door for the sanctuary as well as a temple and stone altar to be built according to the specifications of Kallikrates.
Inscription IG I (3) 35. Athens Epigraphical Museum (EM 8116). Now in the Acropolis Museum, Athens.

Pausanias on the temple of Artemis Agrotera, on the Ilissos, Athens: Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book I, Chapter 19, section 6.

See also: Ione Mylonas Shear, Kallikrates. Hesperia, Volume 32, No. 4 (October - December 1963), pages 375-424, plates 86-91. American School of Classical Studies at Athens. At jstor.org.
 
Kallimachos

Καλλίμαχος (Latin, Callimachus)

Architect, sculptor and perhaps a painter

2nd half of the 5th century BC.

His place of birth is unknown, although Athens and Corinth have been suggested.

He was a contemporary of Agorakritos and Alkamenes.

According to Pliny the Elder, Vitruvius and Pausanias, he was nicknamed Katatexitechnos (Κατατηξιτεχνος, literally, finding fault with one's own craftsmanship; over-meticulous, perfectionist). Pliny also recorded that he was said to have been painter.

"Of all sculptors, though, Callimachus is the most remarkable for his surname: he always deprecated his own work, and made no end of attention to detail, so that he was called the Niggler (Katatexitechnos), a memorable example of the need to limit meticulousness. He made the Laconian Women Dancing, a flawless work, but one in which meticulousness has taken away all charm. He is said also to have been a painter."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19. At Perseus Digital Library.
  Pausanias wrote that Kallimachos made a golden lamp with a bronze chimney in the shape of a palm tree for the Erechtheion on the Athens Acropolis (around 409-406), and that he was the first to use the drill in stone sculpture:

"A golden lamp for the goddess [Athena in the Erechtheion] was made by Callimachus. Having filled the lamp with oil, they wait until the same day next year, and the oil is sufficient for the lamp during the interval, although it is alight both day and night. The wick in it is of Carpasian flax [probably asbestos], the only kind of flax which is fire-proof, and a bronze palm above the lamp reaches to the roof and draws off the smoke.

The Callimachus who made the lamp, although not of the first rank of artists, was yet of unparalleled cleverness, so that he was the first to drill holes through stones, and gave himself the title of Refiner of Art [katatexitechnos], or perhaps others gave the title and he adopted it as his."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 26, sections 6-7. At Perseus Digital Library.

Drills were used in stonework long before Kallimachos, but he may have developed more refined drilling techniques for elaborately detailed sculptures.

Pausanias also mentioned that he made a seated statue of Hera Nympheyomen (Νυμφευομένην, the Bride) for the Temple of Hera at Plataia (Πλάταια) in Boeotia, built around 427 BC.

"Here too is another image of Hera; it is seated, and was made by Callimachus. The goddess they call the Bride for the following reason..."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 9, chapter 2, section 7. At Perseus Digital Library.
 
Vitruvius credited Kallimachos with the invention of the Corinthian capital.

"Just then Callimachus, whom the Athenians called κατατηξίτεχνος for the refinement and delicacy of his artistic work, passed by this tomb and observed the basket with the tender young leaves growing round it. Delighted with the novel style and form, he built some columns after that pattern for the Corinthians, determined their symmetrical proportions, and established from that time forth the rules to be followed in finished works of the Corinthian order."

Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 4, chapter 1, section 10. At Perseus Digital Library.

A fragmentary inscription (SEG 46 830) of the late 5th - early 4th century BC, found in 1981 in Vergina (ancient Aigai), Macedonia, Greece, appears to refer to Kallimachos. The epigram may be connected with a work by him or even be his funerary inscription. It has been suggested, that like the playwright Euripides, Kallimachos was one of the artists invited to work in Macedonia by King Archelaos (see History of Pella), and that he may have died there.

See: Chrysoula Saatsoglou-Paliadele, ΝΑΩΝ ΕΥΣΤΥΛΩΝ: A fragmentary inscription of the Classical period from Vergina. In: E. Voutyras (editor), Inscriptions of Macedonia, Third International Symposium on Macedonia, Thessaloniki, 8-12 December 1993, pages 101-102. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1996.

No surviving sculpture can securely by attributed to Kallimachos, although a number of works of the late 5th century BC as well as Roman period copies have been seen as candidates.

Kallimachos may have made some of the reliefs on the balustrade around the Temple of Athena Nike on the Athens Acropolis, circa 427-421 BC.
(See also Paionios of Mende.)

A marble statue of Winged Nike, an akroterion from the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios in the Athenian Agora, has been attributed to Kallimachos. Excavated at the site of the stoa in 1933, it is dated around 400 BC. Agora Museum, Athens. Inv. No. S 312.

A Neo-Attic relief with dancing maenads (Barracco Museum, Rome. Inv. No. MB 124), and other similar reliefs are thought to have been based on the bronze "Laconian Dancers" by Kallimachos mentioned by Pliny the Elder.

The clinging drapery and other features of works (or copies) attributed to Kallimachos have led to the attribution of the original of the "Venus Genetrix" (or "Aphrodite Fréjus") type marble statues to a hypothetical bronze statue made by him around 420-410 BC. These include a 1st century AD marble statuette of Aphrodite holding an apple (see photo, above right), found in Epidauros. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 1811.

The "Venus Genetrix" type is named due to the belief that the several known examples may be copies of the now-lost cult statue of the Temple of Venus Genetrix (Venus Universal Mother), built by Julius Caesar at the north end of the Forum of Caesar (Forum Iulium or Forum Caesaris), Rome, and consecrated in 46 BC. According to Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 35, chapter 45), Marcus Terentius Varro (116-27 BC) wrote that the statue was made by Arcesilaus (Ἀρκεσίλαος, Arkesilaos).

The "Aphrodite Fréjus", the best example of the type, is dated to late 1st - early 2nd century AD. Thought to have been found in the 17th century at Fréjus, southeastern France, it was originally in the collection of Louis XIV, and is now in the Louvre. Inv. No. Ma 525. Height 1.64 metres.

The statues of the type are thought to depict Aphrodite either as a goddess of vegetation and fertility or a participant in the Judgement of Paris (see Hermes). The goddess stands with her weight on her left leg, her head turned slightly to her left. She wears a himation (cloak) over a thin chiton that clings to her body, and is gathered in pleats between her legs. It hangs from her right shoulder, but the left shoulder and breast are uncovered. With her right hand she draws up the himation, which crosses her back and is draped over her bent left arm. In her outretched left hand she holds an apple.
 
A marble statuette of Aphrodite holding an apple at My Favourite Planet

A restored marble statuette of Aphrodite
of the "Venus Genetrix" type, thought to
have been inspired by a bronze statue
made by Kallimachos around 410 BC.

1st century AD. Found in the sanctuary
of Apollo Maleatas (Ἀπόλλων Μαλεάτας),
on the slope of Mount Kynortion, east
of the Sanctuary of Asklepios
at Epidauros. Height 55 cm.

The head has been reattached, and
the arms and part of the himation
have been restored with plaster.

National Archaeological Museum,
Athens. Inv. No. 1811.
Kallon of Aegina

Καλλον (Latin, Callon)

Late 6th - early 5th century BC

According to Pausanias, he was a pupil of Tectaeus and Angelion, who were pupils of Dipoenos and Skyllis (early 6th century).

Quintilian also mentioned a Kallon and Hegesias (see Hegias of Athens) as examples of earlier sculptors whose work was "somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans" (Institutio Oratoria, Book 12, chapter 10, sections 7-9; see Kalamis 1).

Only Pausanias specified two sculptors of this name: Kallon of Aegina and Kallon of Elis.
  Pausanias wrote that Kallon of Aegina made the cult statue for the temple of Athena at Troezen in the Peloponnese.

"On the citadel is a temple of Athena, called Sthenias. The wooden image itself of the goddess was made by Callon, of Aegina. Callon was a pupil of Tectaeus and Angelion, who made the image of Apollo for the Delians. Angelion and Tectaeus were trained in the school of Dipoenus and Scyllis."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 32, section 5. At Perseus Digital Library

At Amyklai near Sparta (see Bathykles) he made a bronze tripod, probably decorated with reliefs, beneath which stood a statue of Persephone.

"The things worth seeing in Amyclae include ... There are also bronze tripods. The older ones are said to be a tithe of the Messenian war.

Under the first tripod stood an image of Aphrodite, and under the second an Artemis. The two tripods themselves and the reliefs are the work of Gitiadas [Γιτιάδας, Gitiadas of Sparta, circa 500 BC]. The third was made by Callon of Aegina, and under it stands an image of the Maid [Persephone], daughter of Demeter."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 3, chapter 18, sections 7-8.

(Due to an error in this online translation, the name of Kallon appears as "Gallon", but correctly as Αἰγινήτου Κάλλωνοςin the Greek version.)
The bronze tripods, dedicated as offerings to gods, may have resembled those found at other places such Olympia, which were decorated with several reliefs depicting mythological scenes (see an example on the Medusa page).

Pausanias also noted that he was said to have lived around the same time as Kanachos of Sikyon (the Elder?), and a little earlier than Menaechmus and Soldas of Naupaktos who made a chryselephantine statue of Artemis at Patras.

"Others say that the wrath of Artemis against Oeneus weighed as time went on more lightly [elaphroteron] on the Calydonians, and they believe that this was why the goddess received her surname. The image represents her in the guise of a huntress; it is made of ivory and gold, and the artists were Menaechmus and Soldas of Naupactus, who, it is inferred, lived not much later than Canachus of Sicyon and Callon of Aegina."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 7, chapter 18, Section 10.
 
Kallon of Elis

Καλλον (Latin, Callon)

Around 494-436 BC

From Elis, western Peloponnese.

A Kallon specifically from Elis is only mentioned by Pausanias.

The Kallon mentioned by Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19) as a sculptor working in bronze during 87th Olympiad (430-427 BC), along with Agelades and Gorgias the Laconian (see Gorgias), is believed by some scholars to be Kallon of Elis.
  Kallon of Elis made a group of 37 bronze statues at Olympia as a memorial to a chorus of 35 boys, their trainer and flautist from Messine (Μεσσήνη, today Messina), northeastern Sicily, who drowned while crossing the narrow Straits of Messina to Rhegion in southwest Italy.

"On this occasion the Messenians mourned for the loss of the boys, and one of the honours bestowed upon them was the dedication of bronze statues at Olympia, the group including the trainer of the chorus and the flautist. The old inscription declared that the offerings were those of the Messenians at the strait; but afterwards Hippias [around 436 BC], called 'a sage' by the Greeks, composed the elegiac verses on them. The artist of the statues was Callon of Elis."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 25, section 4. At Perseus Digital Library.
 
Kanachos of Sikyon (the Elder)

Κάναχος (Latin, Canachus)

Late 6th - early 5th century BC.

From Sikyon, northwestern Peloponnese.

There were apparently two sculptors named Kanachos, referred to by modern scholars as the Elder and the Younger (see below). They may have been grandfather and grandson.

Pausanias does not distinguish between them, but writes that a Kanachos made two statues of Apollo (now dated to around 500 BC), and elsewhere of a Kanachos who was a pupil of Polykleitos of Argos who is thought to have been working around 460-420 BC.

Pliny the Elder's several mentions of the name are equally vague. It is uncertain which Kanachos he is referring to when he writes:

"I find it stated that Canachus, an artist highly praised among the statuaries in bronze, executed some works also in marble."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

According to Pausanias, the brother of Kanachos (probably the Elder), Aristokles of Sikyon, was also a renowned artist.

"Ptolichus [of Aegina] was a pupil of his father Synnoon, and he of Aristocles the Sicyonian, a brother of Canachus and almost as famous an artist."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 9, section 1. At Perseus Digital Library.

Pausanias also named Askaros of Thebes as a pupil of Kanachos of Sikyon. He wrote that Askaros made a statue of Zeus at Olympia for the Thessalians, and was of the opinion that it had been made before the Persian invasion of Greece (480-479 BC).

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 24, section 1.
  Cicero, discussing the "systematic development" of sculpture by comparing the works of Kanachos, Kalamis, Myron and Polykleitos, commented that "the figures of Canachus are too stiff and formal to resemble life". Cicero, Brutus, section 70 (see full quote under Kalamis 1).

Statues of three Muses by Aristokles, Kanachos and Ageladas were described in an epigram by the Greek poet Antipater of Sidon (Ἀντίπατρος ὁ Σιδώνιος) in the 2nd century BC (see Ageladas above).

Pausanias is thought to have been referring to Kanachos the Elder when describing the cedar wood statue of Apollo he made for the temple of Ismenian Apollo in Thebes, comparing it with his similar bronze statue at the sanctuary of Apollo in Didyma (Δίδυμα), in the territory of Miletus, Ionia.

"On the right of the gate is a hill sacred to Apollo. Both the hill and the god are called Ismenian, as the river Ismenus Rows by the place. First at the entrance are Athena and Hermes, stone figures and named Pronai [Of the fore-temple]. The Hermes is said to have been made by Pheidias, the Athena by Scopas.

The temple is built behind. The image is in size equal to that at Branchidae [Didyma]; and does not differ from it at all in shape. Whoever has seen one of these two images, and learnt who was the artist, does not need much skill to discern, when he looks at the other, that it is a work of Canachus. The only difference is that the image at Branchidae is of bronze, while the Ismenian is of cedar-wood."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 9, chapter 10, section 2. At Perseus Digital Library.

Pausanias mentioned the Apollo at Didyma by Kanachos on another occasion, when describing the sanctuary of Aphrodite in Sikyon, for which the artist made the chryselephantine cult statue of the goddess.

"After this is the sanctuary of Aphrodite, into which enter only a female verger, who after her appointment may not have intercourse with a man, and a virgin, called the Bath-bearer, holding her sacred office for a year. All others are wont to behold the goddess from the entrance, and to pray from that place.

The image, which is seated, was made by the Sicyonian Canachus, who also fashioned the Apollo at Didyma of the Milesians, and the Ismenian Apollo for the Thebans. It is made of gold and ivory, having on its head a polos, and carrying in one hand a poppy and in the other an apple."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 10, sections 4-5).

 
Pliny the Elder also mentioned a statue of Apollo at Didyma by Kanachos, thought to refer to Kanachos the Elder.

"Canachus executed a nude Apollo, which is known as the 'Philesian'. It is at Didymi, and is composed of bronze that was fused at Aegina. He also made a stag with it, so nicely poised on its hoofs, as to admit of a thread being passed beneath. One fore-foots, too, and the alternate hind-foot are so made as firmly to grip the base, the socket being so indented on either side, as to admit of the figure being thrown at pleasure upon alternate feet. Another work of his was the boys known as the 'Celetizontes'."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19. At Perseus Digital Library.

Pliny's description of the stag (or stags) has been described as "difficult" to comprehend or translate, but it is thought that the figure(s) could be mechanically operated.

Pliny also mentioned statues of keletizontes (κελητιζοντες, boy jockeys) by Hegias of Athens.

The Didyma statue of Apollo Philesios (Απολλων Φιλήσιος, The Lovely, or Of the Kiss) by Kanachos is thought to have been cast in Aegina around 500 BC, and to be the figure shown on coins of Miletus and on the so-called "Kanachos Relief" found in the Roman theatre of Miletus (Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Inv. No. Sk 1592; see photo below), as well as a bronze statuette in the British Museum (from Etruria, 1st century BC - 1st century AD, Inv. No. 1824,0405.1. Bronze 209). Coins of Tarsus show a similar type of statue. However, it is not certain whether it was the cult statue of the temple, since the god at Didyma was known as Apollo Dydimeus (Διδυμέυς). It may have been a votive offering for the oracle.

It is thought that the statue may have been among the artworks looted by the Persians, either by Darius I in 494 BC or by Xerxes in 479 BC, and taken to Persia, then returned during the Hellenistic period by Seleucus I Nicator (circa 358-281 BC).

"Xerxes, too, the son of Dareius, the king of Persia, apart from the spoil he carried away from the city of Athens, took besides, as we know, from Brauron the image of Brauronian Artemis, and furthermore, accusing the Milesians of cowardice in a naval engagement against the Athenians in Greek waters, carried away from them the bronze Apollo at Branchidae. This it was to be the lot of Seleucus afterwards to restore to the Milesians."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 8, Chapter 46, section 3.

"I am persuaded that Seleucus was the most righteous, and in particular the most religious of the kings. Firstly, it was Seleucus who sent back to Branchidae for the Milesians the bronze Apollo that had been carried by Xerxes to Ecbatana in Persia."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, Chapter 16, section 3.

According to Arrian of Nicomedia (2nd century AD), Alexander the Great himself ordered the return of statues looted from the Greeks by Xerxes.

See: Arrian, The Anabasis of Alexander, Book 3, chapter 16 and Book 7, chapter 19. At wikisource.

See also: Volker Michael Strocka, Der Apollon des Kanachos in Didyma und der Beginn des strengen Stils. In: Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Band 117 (2002), pages 81-135 with illustrations. Walter de Gruyter, 2003. At Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg.
 
The Kanachos Relief of Apollo Philesios from Miletus at My Favourite Planet

The "Kanachos Relief" thought to depict the Archaic bronze statue of Apollo Philesios, made around
500 BC by Kanachos of Sikyon (the Elder) for the sanctuary of Apollo in Didyma (Δίδυμα), Ionia.

Marble. 150-200 AD, Roman Imperial period. Found in February 1903 in the orchestra
of the Roman theatre of Miletus (Μίλητος, today Balat, Aydin Province, Turkey).
Height 79.5 cm, length 1.90 cm, depth 33 cm.

Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. Sk 1592.

The stiff-looking, kouros-type statue in the relief depicts a naked, wreathed Apollo, standing on a base, with a bow in his left hand and a deer in the right. To the left of the statue (see photo below) is a flaming, conical altar made of ashes. Either side of him is a young male figure, naked apart from a wreath and himation (cloak), holding a long torch. The torch bearers also stand on bases, but in contrast to the stiff, static pose of Apollo, they are shown in movement.  
The statue of Apollo Philesios on the The Kanachos Relief at My Favourite Planet

Detail of the statue of Apollo on the "Kanachos Relief" (above).
Kanachos of Sikyon (the Younger)

Κάναχος (Latin, Canachus)

Flourished around 400 BC (95th Olympiad, Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19).

From Sikyon, northwestern Peloponnese.

A pupil of Polykleitos of Argos (Pausanias, Book 6, chapter 13, section 7), and perhaps the grandson of Kanachos the Elder.
  A statue of a boy boxer at Olympia: "Bycelus, the first Sicyonian to win the boys' boxing-match, had his statue made by Canachus of Sicyon, a pupil of the Argive Polycleitus."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 13, section 7.

With Patrokles (Πατροκλῆς), Kanachos made statues of the Spartan commanders Epikydidas (Ἐπικυδίδας) and Eteonikos (Ἐτεόνικος), set up in Delphi to commemorate their victory over the Athenians at the naval Battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC, at the end of the Peloponnesian War (Pausanias, Book 10, chapter 9, section 10).
 
Kephisodotos the Elder

Κηφισόδοτος

(Kephisodotos I or Cephisodotus the Elder)

Flourished around 400-360 BC

Athens

Perhaps the father or uncle of Praxiteles, and grandfather of Kephisodotos the Younger and Timarchos.
  Pliny the Elder distinguished between two sculptors named Kephisodotos, attributing to Kephisodotos the Elder a bronze statue of Hermes holding the infant Dionysus:

"There were two artists of the name of Cephisodotus: the earlier of them made a figure of Mercury [Hermes] nursing Father Liber [Dionysus] when an infant; also of a man haranguing, with the hand elevated, the original of which is now unknown. The younger Cephisodotus executed statues of philosophers."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

A Herm of Hermes, the base of a statue of Hermes carrying the infant Dionysus, in the Museum of the Ancient Agora, Athens, Inv. No. S 33, is thought to be a Roman copy of the statue group by Kephisodotos the Elder.

Kephisodotos the Elder made a statue of the goddess Eirene (Peace) holding the infant Ploutos (Wealth), set up on the Areopagus, Athens, circa 380-370 BC. A Roman period copy is in the Glyptothek, Munich. Inv. No. 219. There are also fragments in various collections, including a part of the Ploutos figure in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens.

"It was a clever idea of these artists to place Wealth in the arms of Fortune, and so to suggest that she is his mother or nurse. Equally clever was the conception of Cephisodotus, who made the image of Peace for the Athenians with Wealth in her arms."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 9, chapter 16, section 2.

The bronze Classicistic "Piraeus Athena" statue has been attributed to either Kephisodotos or Euphranor. Piraeus Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 4646.

The "Artemide di Kephisodotos", found in 1873 in the Horti Vettiani, Rome, is perhaps a Roman copy of the statue of Artemis by Kephisodotos. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Capitoline Musemus, Rome. Inv. No. MC 1123.
 
Kephisodotos the Younger

Κηφισόδοτος ο Νεότερος

(Kephisodotos II or Cephisodotus the Younger)

4th - 3rd century BC

Athens

He was the son of Praxiteles (Pliny, 36, 4), brother of Timarchos and grandson of Kephisodotos the Elder.
 
"The younger Cephisodotus executed statues of philosophers."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

"Cephisodotus, the son of Praxiteles, inherited his father's talent. There is, by him, at Pergamus, a splendid Group of Wrestlers, a work that has been highly praised, and in which the fingers have all the appearance of being impressed upon real flesh rather than upon marble. At Rome there are by him, a Latona [Leto], in the Temple of the Palatium; a Venus [Aphrodite], in the buildings that are memorials of Asinius Pollio; and an Aesculapius [Asklepios], and a Diana [Artemis], in the Temple of Juno situated within the Porticos of Octavia [Porticus Octaviae, Rome]."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.
 
 
With his brother Timarchos, Kephisodotos the Younger also made a statue of Enyo which stood in the Athens Agora (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 8, section 4).

A Statue of Menander (Athenian playwright, circa 342-290 BC) at the Theatre of Dionysos, Athens, was mentioned by Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book I, chapter 21, section 1. A pedestal, dated 291/290 BC, discovered at the theatre in 1862, bears an inscription with the name "Menandros", below which are the signatures "Kephisodotos the Younger and Timarchos, sons of Praxiteles". The pedestal is displayed at the theatre, with a modern composite cast of the statue made from fragments of Roman period copies (in Naples and Venice). More than 70 copies of the statue have survived.

According to the Syrian theologian Tatian (Τατιανός, circa 120-180 AD), Kephisodotos made a statue of the poetess Myro of Byzantium (see Menestratos). Since Myro (Μυρώ; or Moero, Μοιρώ) probably lived in the late 4th to early 3rd century BC, it is thought more likely that her statue was made by the younger rather than the elder Kephisodotos.

The base of an early 3rd century BC dedication to Athena by Philoumene, daughter of Leosthenes, found at the Athens Acropolis, is signed by Kephisodotos the Younger. Acropolis Museum. Inv. No. Acr. Y 3627.
 
Klearchos of Rhegion

Κλέαρχος (Clearchus of Rhegium)

Early 5th century BC

Rhegion (Ῥήγιον; Latin, Rhegium), southwest Italy

He was a pupil of the Corinthian Eucheirus and the teacher of the sculptor Pythagoras, who was a contemporary of Myron and Polykleitos.
  The only known work by Klearchos was a statue of Zeus at Sparta, made from plates of metal hammered bronze plates riveted together (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 4).  
Kresilas

Κρησίλας; Latin, Cresilas; also referred to as Ctesilas or Ctesilaüs

From Kydonia (Κυδωνία, today Chania), on the north coast of Crete.

Circa 480-410 BC

He is thought to have been a student of Dorotheos of Argos (Δωρόθεος), and may have worked with him at Delphi and Hermione. This theory is mainly based on the discovery of signatures of the two artists on the bases of related statues at both places (see Kresilas signatures in the Kresilas page).

From literary and epigraphical evidence, he appears to have worked between around 450 and 410 BC mainly in Athens, probably as a follower of the school of Myron, known for its idealistic portraiture.
  For further information see the Kresilas page.  
Kritios

Κριτίος

Early 5th century BC

Athens

He was probably a pupil of Antenor.
  Kritios and Nesiotes made the statue pair of the "Tyrannicides" (Τυραννοκτόνοι) Harmodius and Aristogeiton, set up in the Athenian Agora in 477 BC to replace those made Antenor, which had been taken as booty by Xerxes I of Persia in 480 BC (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 8, section 5). The Roman period copies of the two statues, now in Naples, may have been made from plaster casts of the originals in a copyist's workshop in Baiae in the Bay of Naples, where in 1952 part of a cast of the head of Aristogeiton (Baiae Museum. Inv. No. 174.479) was discovered.

National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
Inv. No. G 103 and G 104.

Lucian of Samosata referred to the stiff Archaic style of Hegesias (see Hegias of Athens), Kritios and Nesiotes:

"... the clean-cut, sinewy, hard, firmly outlined productions of Hegesias, or the school of Critius and Nesiotes."

Lucian, The rhetorician’s vade mecum.

The marble statue of a nude youth known as "the Kritian Boy" (or "Kritios Boy"), found on the Athens Acropolis in 1865 (the head in 1888), has been named due to similarities of the head to that of the statue of Harmodius (the younger of the tyrannicides). Dated around 480 BC, it is considered to be the earliest explicit example of Classical sculpture and a radical departure from Archaic kouros statue types (see, for example the colossal "Isches Kouros", "the Ram-Carrier of Thasos" and "the Strangford Apollo", on Samos gallery page 4).

Acropolis Museum, Athens. Inv. No. Acr. 698.
 
 
Sculptors L
Leochares

Λεοχάρης (Lion’s Grace)

4th century BC, working around 370-320 BC

Athens

According to Pliny the Elder, Leochares was working in bronze in the 102nd Olympiad (370 BC), as a contemporary of Kephisodotos the Elder, Polykles and Hypatodorus (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19). However, many scholars believe this date is far too early for the height of his career, particularly taking into consideration the projects he is said to have worked on and the other artists he worked with.
  Leochares made chryselephantine (ivory and gold) statues for the Philippeion at Olympia, commissioned by Philip II of Macedonia following his victory at the Battle of Chaeroneia in 338 BC, and probably completed during the reign of his son Alexander the Great. Pausanias mentioned statues there of Philip, Alexander, Olympias (Alexander's mother), Amyntas III and Eurydice I (Philip's parents).

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 20, sections 9-10.

See: Katherine Denkers, The Philippeion at Olympia: The true image of Philip? MA thesis, McMaster University, 2012.
 
 
Marble head of Alexander the Great, 340-330 BC. Thought to be an original work of Leochares. Found in 1886 near the Erechtheion of the Athens Acropolis. It has been suggested that the portrait of Alexander in the Philippeion at Olympia may have been a copy of this sculpture. Acropolis Museum, Athens. Inv. No. Acr. 1331.

Plutarch wrote that Leochares and Lysippos made a now lost bronze statue group depicting Alexander and his general Krateros hunting a lion, which was dedicated by Krateros at Delphi. This is thought to have been one of Leochares' last works and to have been dedicated around 320 BC. Pliny the Elder also mentioned a bronze statue of Alexander hunting by Lysippos, "now consecrated at Delphi", but did not mention that Leochares worked on the sculpture.

Plutarch, Life of Alexander, chapter 40, section 5; Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 19.

Leochares made a statue of Apollo (probably around 338-322 BC) which stood next to one by Kalamis in front of the Temple of Apollo Patroos (Paternal) in the Athenian Agora (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 3, section 3). He also made a statue group of Zeus and the People at the sanctuary of Zeus and Athena at Piraeus (Pausanias, 1, 3, 3).

Around 350 BC he made sculptures for the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus with Bryaxis, Skopas, and perhaps Timotheos and Praxiteles. According to Pliny the Elder, he worked on the west side of the monument. (Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 7, Introduction, section 13; Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4; see Bryaxis)

According to Vitruvius, either Leochares or Timotheos made a colossal acrolithic statue of Ares at the temple of Ares in Halicarnassus:

"At the top of the hill, in the centre, is the fane of Mars, containing a colossal acrolithic statue by the famous hand of Leochares. That is, some think that this statue is by Leochares, others by Timotheus."

Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 2, chapter 8, section 11.

Other bronze sculptures by Leochares mentioned by Pliny:

"Leochares made a bronze representing the eagle [Zeus] carrying off Ganymede: the eagle has all the appearance of being sensible of the importance of his burden, and for whom he is carrying it, being careful not to injure the youth with his talons, even through the garments. He executed a figure, also, of Autolycus, who had been victorious in the contests of the Pancratium, and for whom Xenophon wrote his Symposium; the figure, also, of Jupiter Tonans in the Capitol, the most admired of all his works; and a statue of Apollo crowned with a diadem. He executed, also, a figure of Lyciscus, and one of the boy Lagon, full of the archness and low-bred cunning of the slave."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 19.

The figure of Autolycus, a winner in the pankration (παγκράτιον, a no-holds-barred mixture of boxing and wrestling), perhaps in the Panathenaic games of 422 BC, may have been the statue reported by Pausanias as standing in the Prytaneion (Πρυτανεῖον, town hall), below the eastern end of the Athens Acropolis. Some scholars believe that Pliny's text is confused, and that the statue may have been made by Lykios (see Lykios below).

"Hard by is the Prytaneum, in which the laws of Solon are inscribed, and figures are placed of the goddesses Peace and Hestia, while among the statues is Autolycus the pancratiast."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 18, section 3.

The statue of Jupiter Tonans (Ζεὺς βρονταῖος, Zeus Brontaios, Thundering Zeus), made of Delian bronze (Natural history, Book 34, chapter 5), is thought to have been an early work of Leochares which stood in Megalopolis, Arcadia. It was later was taken to Rome and set up by Augustus in the Temple of Jupiter Tonans he built on the Capitol of highly polished solid blocks of marble (Natural history, Book 36, chapter 8).

Leochares' signature has been found on 10 statue bases in Athens, many fragmentary and incomplete. They include:

A dedication to Asklepios, around 338 BC. Inscription IG II² 2831+4367 (also IG II² 2831, IG II² 4367 and SEG 30:163).

A dedication by officials, mid 4th century BC. Inscription IG II³ 463. Epigraphical Museum, Athens, Inv. No. EM 10601).

The dedication of Pandaites and Pasikles, a base for a group of five statues of Pasikles of Potamos and his family, around 330 BC. Two statues are signed by Sthennis and two by Leochares. The signature for the fifth statue is missing. Inscription IG II² 3829.

For seven of the signatures of Leochares, see: Emanuel Loewy (1857-1938), Inschriften griechischer Bildhauer, Nos. 77-83, pages 60-65. B. G. Teubner, Leipzig, 1885. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.
 
Lykios

Λύκιος (Latin, Lycius)

Mid 5th century BC

From Eleutherai (Ἐλευθεραί), near the border between northern Attica and Boeotia. He worked at Athens and Olympia.

Son and/or pupil of Myron of Eleutherai (Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5, 22; Pliny, Natural History, 34, 79).

For more about Eleutherai and Athens, see Athens Acropolis gallery page 36.
  Statues by Lykios in Athens and Olympia are known from literary and epigraphical evidence. He appears to have continued the work of his father and/or teacher Myron. Like other contemporary sculptors working in Athens, he was probably involved in the Periclean building project on the Acropolis, although there appears to be no evidence for modern claims that he worked there as an architect.

Pausanias saw a statue of a boy holding a perirrhanterion (περιρραντήριον, a vessel or sprinkler for holy water) by Lykios, next to Myron's statue of Perseus on the Athens Acropolis, perhaps just inside the Propylaia, near the sanctuary of Athena Hygieia, in front of the sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia.

"I remember looking at other things also on the Athenian Acropolis, a bronze boy holding the sprinkler, by Lycius son of Myron, and Myron's Perseus after beheading Medusa."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 23, section 7. At Perseus Digital Library.

 
Pausanias also described an extensive group of statues near the Hippodamion (Ἱπποδάμιον) in Olympia, made by Lykios for Apollonia (Ἀπολλωνία πρὸς Ἐπίδαμνον, Apollonia pros Epidamnon; in Illyria or Epirus; today near Pojani, Albania) on the Ionian Sea, a colony of Korkyra (Corfu). The statues depicted scenes from the Epic Cycle of poems dealing with the Trojan War (see Homer). In one scene Thetis (mother of Achilles) and Hemera (Eos, mother of Memnon) made pleas to Zeus for the lives of their respective sons. The other sculptures included five pairs of Homeric heroes in duels:

"By the side of what is called the Hippodamium is a semicircular stone pedestal, and on it are Zeus, Thetis, and Day [Hemera] entreating Zeus on behalf of her children. These are on the middle of the pedestal. There are Achilles and Memnon, one at either edge of the pedestal, representing a pair of combatants in position. There are other pairs similarly opposed, foreigner against Greek: Odysseus opposed to Helenus, reputed to be the cleverest men in the respective armies; Alexander [Paris] and Menelaus, in virtue of their ancient feud; Aeneas and Diomedes, and Deiphobus and Ajax son of Telamon.

These are the work of Lycius, the son of Myron, and were dedicated by the people of Apollonia on the Ionian sea."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 22, sections 2-3. At Perseus Digital Library.

Two fragments of black limestone found at Olympia, inscribed at the edges at which they join with the name Memnon (Μέμνων), are thought to be parts of the semicircular pedestal on which Lykios' statue group stood.

Μέμνω - ν

Inscription IvO 692 at The Packard Humanities Institute.
Height 30.5 - 31.5 cm, combined width 54 cm, depth 88 cm.

See: Ernst Curtius and Friedrich Adler (editors), Olympia: die Ergebnisse der von dem Deutschen Reich veranstalteten Ausgrabung, Wilhelm Dittenberger and Karl Purgold, Textband 5: Die Inschriften von Olympia, No. 692, columns 711-712. A. Ascher & Co., Berlin, 1896. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.

Athenaeus of Naucratis (2nd - 3rd century AD), citing Polemo (probably the geographer Polemo Periegetes, also cited by Strabo), referred to Lykios as a Boeotian from Eleutherai and a son of Myron. He refuted a claim by the grammarian Didymos that he made vessels known as φίαλας λυκουργεῖς (Lykian or Lycian phiales) or λυκιουργεῖς (Lykiourgeis, Lycian cups or Lycian ware) mentioned in a speech by Demosthenes.

"There is also the Lyciurges. The things which are so called are some kinds of phialae, which derive their name from Lycon who made them, just as the Cononii are the cups made by Conon. Now, Demosthenes, in his Oration for the Crown, mentions Lycon; and he does so again, in his oration against Timotheus for an assault, where he says, 'two lyciurgeis Phialae'. And in his speech against Timotheus he also says, 'He gives Phormion, with the money, also two lyciurgeis Phialae to put away'. And Didymus the grammarian says that these are cups made by Lycius. And this Lycius was a Boeotian by birth, of the town of Eleutherae, a son of Myron the sculptor, as Polemo relates in the first book of his treatise on the Acropolis of Athens; but the grammarian is ignorant that one could never find such a formation of a word as that derived from proper names, but only from cities or nations."

Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists, Book 11, chapter 72. At Perseus Digital Library.

The same information appears in the Suda, where it is argued that such vessels were named after Lycia in southwest Anatolia:

"Λυκιουργίς: Lykian-ware, Lycian-ware: Demosthenes in the [speech] Against Timotheos uses the expression. Didymos asserts that the bowls manufactured by Lykios the son of Myron were referred to in this way. But the grammarian seems to be unaware that one would not find such an expression arising from proper names, rather from cities and peoples; like 'a couch Milesian-made' and the like. So perhaps one should write, in Herodotus [book] seven, not two hunting-spears 'wolf-made' but 'Lykian-made', in order that, just as in Demosthenes, they may be described as being of Lykian manufacture."

Suda, § la.807. At ToposText.

This rather involved pedantic argument has led modern scholars to ask whether Lykios did make such vessels, perhaps chased silver phiales (libation bowls), as other sculptors are said have done, including Myron and Kalamis.

Pliny the Elder named Lykios as a pupil of Myron in a list of sculptors in bronze. A little later in the same chapter he mentioned a statue of a boy and a statue group of the Argonauts. After continuing with works by Leochares, he adds another statue of a boy by Lykios. Some scholars have considered this confusing text may actually have meant that Lykios also made one or more of the statues ascribed to Leochares, particularly the statue of Autolycus.

"Lycius, too, was the pupil of Myron."

"Lycius was the pupil of Myron: he made a figure representing a boy blowing a nearly extinguished fire, well worthy of his master, as also figures of the Argonauts. Leochares made a bronze representing the eagle carrying off Ganymede: the eagle has all the appearance of being sensible of the importance of his burden, and for whom he is carrying it, being careful not to injure the youth with his talons, even through the garments. He executed a figure, also, of Autolycus, who had been victorious in the contests of the Pancratium, and for whom Xenophon wrote his Symposium; the figure, also, of Jupiter Tonans in the Capitol, the most admired of all his works; and a statue of Apollo crowned with a diadem. He executed, also, a figure of Lyciscus, and one of the boy Lagon, full of the archness and low-bred cunning of the slave. Lycius also made a figure of a boy burning perfumes."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 19.

An inscribed grey marble statue base (perhaps Pentelic or Hymettian marble) signed by Lykios, son of Myron, and dated around 450-430 BC, was found in 1889 near southwest corner of the Parthenon, on the Athens Acropolis. Dowel holes in the top of the base (see drawing below) indicate that the statue was of a horse (with or without a rider), facing right, being led by a man standing next to it. The monument was dedicated by three cavalry generals (hipparchs) to commemorate a battle, although its place and date remain a subject of debate.

ℎοι ℎι[ππ]ῆς [⋮] ἀπὸ τ̣ο͂ν [πο]λεμίον ⋮ ℎιππαρ[χ]ό[ν]-
τον ⋮ Λακεδ̣αιμονίο [⋮] Ξ̣[ε]νοφο͂ντος ⋮ Προν[ά]π[ο]-
ς ⋮ Λύκιο[ς ⋮ ἐ]ποίησεν [⋮] Ἐλευθερεὺς [⋮ Μ]ύ̣[ρ]ο̣ν̣[ος].

The cavalry [dedicated this] from [the spoils of] the enemy. The cavalry commanders
were Lakedaimonios, Xenophon, Pronapes.
Lykios of Eleutherai, son of Myron, made it.

Inscription IG I³ 511 (= IG I² 400,Ia; Antony E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis [DAA], No. 135) at The Packard Humanities Institute.

In the early Roman Imperial period, probably in the 1st century BC during the reign of Augustus, the base was turned on its head and reinscribed on the opposite side with an exact copy of the original dedication in archaistic early Attic lettering. IG I² 400,Ib (DAA 135a). The statue placed on the reused based is thought to have been a newly-made work of a similar type, although probably not a copy of Lykios' group, since the dowel holes are distributed differently.

Around the same time another, apparently new base of grey Hymettian marble was also inscribed with a copy of the dedication in the same archaistic lettering, but by a different stonemason. Three fragments of the inscription were discovered at different times in various places around the Acropolis IG I² 400,II (DAA 135b). The findspots of two fragments are unknown, but "Fragment b" was found in 1880, built into a late wall to the west of the Pedestal of Agrippa.

Later, another block of the first pedestal (DAA 135a) was inscribed again, apparently presenting the statue as a dedication by the demos (the people) to Germanicus Caesar, the adopted son and heir of Emperor Tiberius (reigned 14-37 AD). This may have been made at the time of Germanicus' visit to Athens in 18 AD.

ὁ δῆμος
Γερ[μ]ανικ[ὸν Κα]ίσαρα
θεοῦ Σε[βαστοῦ ἔγγονον].

The demos [dedicated this statue of]
Germanicus Caesar,
descendant of the divine Augustus.

Inscription IG II² 3260 (see DAA 135, 135a, 135b) at The Packard Humanities Institute.

It is therefore believed that Lykios' original statues may have been destroyed or moved elsewhere (perhaps taken to Rome?), and later replaced by two equestrian statues on similar bases, perhaps standing on a single pedestal. Later one or both of the statues were rededicated to Germanicus Caesar. It is also thought that these may have been the statues Pausanias saw on his way up to the Propylaia of the Athens Acropolis, and that he may have been confused or bemused by the extra dedication to Germanicus. The two early Imperial statues may have depicted Gryllus and Diodorus, sons of the general Xenophon of Athens, or the Dioskouroi standing with horses.

"Now as to the statues of the horsemen, I cannot tell for certain whether they are the sons of Xenophon or whether they were made merely to beautify the place."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 22, section 4. At Perseus Digital Library.

The original inscription and the dedication to Germaninus have been placed on the bastion of the Athena Nike Temple. See a photo, drawings and further discussion on Athens Acropolis page 8.

See also:

Lilian Hamilton Jeffery, Lykios son of Myron: the epigraphic evidence. In: Στήλη Τόμος Εις Μνήμην Νικολάου Κοντολέοντος, pages 51-54. 1971.

Jerome Jordan Pollitt, The art of ancient Greece: sources and documents, Chapter 5, pages 69-71. Cambridge University Press, 1990. At Google Books.

A fragment of another statue base, made of limestone, with a now incomplete two-line inscription thought to include a dedication and Lykios' signature, was found in 1865, northeast of Propylaia. The forms of the lettering are similar to those on the cavalry monunent above (DAA 135). It is not certain whether both lines are part of the same inscription, and reconstruction has posed problems for scholars. It is is thought that Lykios may have dedicated the statue himself, perhaps around 440-430 BC. According to another interpretation, the first line may be a dedication by Semichides of Eleutherai (before 440 BC), and the second the signature of Lykios of Eleutherai, son of Myron.

[Ἀθεναίαι ἀπαρχὲν Σεμιχίδ]ες Ἐλευθερε[ὺς ἀνέθεκεν]
[Λύκιος ἐποίεσεν Ἐλευθερεὺς] Μύρονος. [vac.]

Inscription DAA 138 at The Packard Humanities Institute.
Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 6272.
Height 15 cm, length 26 cm, width 8 cm. The top of the slab is smooth, with no traces of cutting.

See also IG I³ 892 (also IG I² 537) at The Packard Humanities Institute.

It has been suggested that the statue which stood on this base may have been Lykios' bronze boy holding a perirrhanterion mentioned by Pausanias.
 
The top of the base of the cavalry statue group by Lykios at My Favourite Planet

A drawing of the top of the base of the cavalry statue group by Lykios on the
Athens Acropolis (see above), showing the dowel holes for affixing the statues.

Source: Carlo Anti, Lykios, Fig. 9, page 40. In: Bullettino della Commissione
Archeologica Comunale di Roma
, Anno 47
(1919), pages 55-138.
P. Maglione & C. Strini, Rome, 1921. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.
Lysippos

Λύσιππος (Latin, Lysippus)

Circa 390-305 BC

Born at Sikyon, northeastern Peloponnese.

An autodidact, he was originally a metal smith, became a prolific sculptor, and later head of the school of Argos and Sikyon.

He was the official sculptor of Alexander the Great, and, according to Plutarch, the only artist permitted to portray him in statues (Plutarch, Moralia, 335).

His brother Lysistratos was also a renowned sculptor.
  Lysippos was mentioned and praised by several ancient authors (Xenokrates, Plutarch, Pliny the Elder, Pausanias, Velleius Paterculus). It has been estimated that he may have produced over 1,500 statues which were set up all around the Greek world (Alyzia, Argos, Athens, Corinth, Delphi, Dion, Mount Helikon, Kos, Lampsakos, Lindos, Megara, Olympia, Pharsalos, Rhodes, Samos, Thebes, Thermon, Thespiai, Sikyon, Taranto). Many were later taken to Rome.

None of his works appears to have survived entire, and no extant sculpture or fragment has been identified beyond doubt to be by him. He had a large workshop, many assistants and pupils, and some of his works were copied by others during his lifetime. Several Roman period statues are thought to be copies of his works.
 
 
Pliny the Elder reported that Lysippos made a colossal bronze statue of Jupiter (Zeus), 40 cubits high (around 18 metres), which stood in Tarentum (Greek, Τάρᾱς, Taras; today Taranto), Apulia, southern Italy:

"As to boldness of design, the examples are innumerable; for we see designed, statues of enormous bulk, known as colossal statues and equal to towers in size. Such, for instance, is the Apollo in the Capitol, which was brought by M. Lucullus from Apollonia, a city of Pontus, thirty cubits in height, and which cost five hundred talents [see Kalamis]. Such, too, is the statue of Jupiter, in the Campus Martius, dedicated by the late Emperor Claudius, but which appears small in comparison from its vicinity to the Theatre of Pompeius. And such is that at Tarentum, forty cubits in height, and the work of Lysippus. It is a remarkable circumstance in this statue, that though, as it is stated, it is so nicely balanced as to be moveable by the hand, it has never been thrown down by a tempest. This indeed, the artist, it is said, has guarded against, by a column erected at a short distance from it, upon the side on which the violence of the wind required to be broken. On account, therefore, of its magnitude, and the great difficulty of moving it, Fabius Verrucosus [Q. Fabius Maximus] did not touch it, when he transferred the Hercules from that place to the Capitol, where it now stands."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 18.

Pausanias recorded bronze statues of Zeus and Herakles by "Lysippos the Sikyonian" in the agora of Sikyon (Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 9, sections 6 and 8). He also wrote that Lysippos made the bronze cult statue of Nemean Zeus for the god's sanctuary at Argos (Book 2, chapter 20, section 3).

According to the Syrian theologian Tatian (Τατιανός; Latin, Tatianus; circa 120-180 AD), Lysippos made a bronze statue of the poetess Praxilla of Sikyon (Πράξιλλα, see Menestratos).

He made several portraits of Alexander the Great from boyhood, and is thought to have made the original iconic sculpture portrait of Alexander which became the model for many copies into the Roman Imperial period.

He made a statue of Aristotle, commissioned by Alexander around 330 BC, which is also thought to have been the model for a number of extant copies (Louvre, Palazzo Altemps, Rome, National Archaeological Museum, Athens).

The Granikos Monument (or Granicus Monument), a bronze equestrian group of 25 (or more) figures, commissioned by Alexander, made by Lysippos to commemorate members of Alexander's Companion royal guard who died at the Battle of the Granicus River in 334 BC, and erected at Dion, Macedonia around 330 BC. Taken to Rome by Quintus Cecilius Metellus in 146 BC.

A 1st century BC bronze statuette of Alexander the Great on horseback, one of a group of three similar equestrian bronzes found in Herculaneum, is thought to be a copy from the Granikos Monument.

National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Italy. Inv. No. 4996.

Plutarch wrote that Lysippos and Leochares made a now lost bronze statue group depicting Alexander and Krateros hunting a lion, which was dedicated by Krateros at Delphi. Pliny the Elder also mentioned a bronze statue of Alexander hunting by Lysippos, "now consecrated at Delphi", but did not mention that Leochares worked on the sculpture.

Plutarch, Life of Alexander, chapter 40, section 5; Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

"The Farnese Hercules", a colossal statue of the god at rest, discovered in the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, and now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples (Inv. No. 6001), is also thought to be a copy of a Lysippean original, perhaps the Herakles from Sikyon made around 325 BC.

"The Atalante Hermes", a 2nd century AD marble funerary statue of a nude youth depicted as Hermes, found at Atalante, Phtiotis, is thought to be a copy of a work by Lysippos.
National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 240.

A statue of Hermes in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna is thought to be copy of a work by Lysippos, which may also have been the model for a bronze statue of Hermes resting found in Heculaneum, now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples. Inv. No. 5625.
 
A marble statue in Delphi depicting Hagias (or Agias; Ἁγίας) of Pharsalos as a naked pankration champion (see photo, right), may be by Lysippos or a copy of a bronze original by him. It is one of a row of nine marble statues set up around 339-334 BC near the Treasury of the Thessalians in Delphi as a votive dedication to Apollo by Daodochos II, tetrarch of Thessaly, and discovered by French archaeologists in 1894. One of the statues depicted a god, probably Apollo, seated and holding a lyre. The other eight were idealized portraits of Daodochos and members of his family over six generations, identified by inscriptions along the front of the 11.67 meter long limestone pedestal on which the statues stood. The 200 cm tall statue of Hagias, the great-grandfather of Daodochos II, and its epigrammatic inscription are the best preserved. Delphi Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 1875.

Πρῶτος Ὀλύμπια παγκράτιον, Φαρσάλιε νίκᾳς, Ἁγία Ἀκνονίου, γῆς ἀπὸ Θεσσαλίας, Πεντάκις ἐν Νεμέᾳ, τρὶς Πύθια, πεντάκις Ἰσθμοῖ καὶ σῶν οὐδείς πω στῆσε τρόπαια χερῶν.

You are the first from the Thessalian land to be victorious in the Pankration at the Olympic games, Hagias son of Aknonios, from Pharsalos, (having been victorious) five times at Nemea, three times in the Pythian games, (and) five times at the Isthmos; and no one yet has dragged the trophies from your hands.

Inscription FD III, 4, No. 460.

A few years later, while researching for his doctoral thesis, the German epigraphist Hermann Erich Preuner (1867-1935) studied the unpublished papers of the German archaeologist Count Otto Magnus Baron von Stackelberg (1786-1837), and was astonished to discover that Stackelberg had copied part of a very similar inscription at Pharsalos (Φάρσαλος, today Pharsala) in southern Thessaly, the hometown of Daodochos' family.

Stackelberg visited Pharsalos with Danish archaeologist Peter Oluf Brøndsted (1780-1842) in September 1811, where he copied the inscription fragment containing the left side of the epigram, and noted in his diary: "Die einzige Inschrift, die wir in Pharsala fanden, liegt im Stall des Chans zerbrochen. Schöne Lettern." ("The only inscription we found in Pharsala, lying broken in the stable of the han [Turkish inn]. Beautiful lettering.") It was part of a white marble base of a bronze statue which also depicted the pankration champion Hagias of Pharsalos, and also appeared to include part of the signature of Lysippos (see drawing, above right).

In 1895 two other archaeologists, Gaetano De Sanctis (1870-1957) and Eugen Peter Pridik (1865-1935), travelled to Pharsalos and recorded a further fragment of the same inscription with part of the right side of the epigram. Unfortunately, neither of these fragments have since been rediscovered. They have been restored, with some additons from the Delphi inscription:

[— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —]
[— —]Κ[— — — — — — — — — — — — — — —]
[— — —]ΓΕΣ[— — — — —]ΟΥΣΙΣΟ[— — — — —]
[πατρί]δα Φάρσ[αλον] καὶ πατέ̣[ρ’ Ἀκνόνιον].
[πρῶ]τος Ὀλύμπ[ια πα]γκράτιο[ν, Φαρσάλιε, νικᾶις],
[Ἀγ]ία Ἀκνονίο[υ, γῆς ἀ]πὸ Θ̣εσσ[αλίας],
[πε]ντάκις ἐν Νε[μέαι], τ̣όσα Π[ύθια, πεντάκις Ἰσθμοῖ]
[κα]ὶ σῶν οὐδείς [πω στῆσ]ε̣ τρ[όπαια χερῶν].

Λύσιππ[ος Σικυώνιος ἐποίησεν].

[?magnifying]
the father]land Phars[alos] and ancestr[ral excellence
You were the first from the land of Thessaly to win the Olympic pankration,
Pharsalian Hagias, son of Aknonios,
Five times at the Nemean games, as often at Pytho, five times at the Isthmus
And no one ever set up tokens of victory over your hands.

Lysipp[os of Sikyon made this]

Inscription I.Thess I 57 (also IG IX 2 249)

Preuner published both fragments in his doctoral thesis:

Hermann Erich Preuner, Ein delphisches Weihgeschenk. Inaugural dissertation, Kaiser Wilhelms-Universität Strassburg, 1899. Universitäts-Buchdruckerei von Carl Georgi, Bonn, 1899. At the Internet Archive.

It has been suggested that the marble statue of Hagias in Delphi may be a copy of the bronze by Lysippos in Pharsalos, and that perhaps it was made by Lysippos himself or his brother Lysistratos. This has also led to speculation that Lysippos may have made other statues for Daodochos II, copies of which stood on the Daodochos monument in Delphi.

The marble statue of Hagias of Pharsalos in Delphi at My Favourite Planet

The marble statue of Hagias
of Pharsalos in Delphi.

Delphi Archaeological Museum.
Inv. No. 1875.
 
The signature of the sculptor Lysippos at My Favourite Planet

A drawing of Stackelberg's copy of
Lysippos' signature on a fragment of a
statue base from Pharsalos, Thessaly.

Source: Erich Preuner, Ein delphisches
Weihgeschenk
. Fig. A, page 18. Bonn, 1899.
Lysistratos of Sikyon

Λυσίστρατος Σικυώνιος

Working circa 328-325 BC

Brother of Lysippos, from Sikyon, northeastern Peloponnese.
  According to Pliny the Elder, Lysistratos was the first to make moulds of faces from plaster masks, to make plaster casts of sculptures, and make realistic rather than idealized portraits:

"The first person who expressed the human features by fitting a mould of plaster upon the face, and then improving it by pouring melted wax into the cast, was Lysistratus of Sicyon, brother of Lysippus, already mentioned. It was he, in fact, who first made it his study to give a faithful likeness; for before his time, artists only thought how to make their portraits as handsome as possible.

The same artist, too, was the first who thought of making models for his statues; a method which afterwards became so universally adopted, that there could be neither figure nor statue made without its model in clay. Hence it would appear, that the art of modelling in clay is more ancient than that of moulding in bronze."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 35, chapter 44.
 
Lysos

Λῦσος

From Macedonia
  Pausanias wrote that Lysos made a statue at Olympia of Kriannios of Elis, who won a victory in the race in armour (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 17).  
 
Sculptors M
Melas of Chios

Μελάς

Late 7th - early 6th century BC

Chios

A member, perhaps the first, of a family of sculptors from Chios. He was the father of Mikkiades, grandfather of Archermos of Chios, great-grandfather of Bupalus and Athenis.

"... Melas, a sculptor of the isle of Chios; and, in succession to him, his son Micciades, and his grandson Archermus; whose sons, Bupalus and Athenis, afterwards attained the highest eminence in the art. These last were contemporaries of the poet Hipponax, who, it is well known, lived in the sixtieth Olympiad."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4.
     
Menas of Pergamon

Μενάς Περγαμηνὸς

Mid 3rd century BC
  A marble statue base with the inscribed signature Μηνᾶς Αἴαντος Περγαμηνὸς ἐποίησεν (Menas Aiantos Pergamenos epoisen, Menas son of Aias of Pergamon made it) was found along with an over life-size marble statue of Alexander the Great, dated to the mid 3rd century BC, at Magnesia ad Sipylum, Lydia (Manisa, Turkey) in 1895. Istanbul Archaeological Museum. Statue Inv. No. 709. Cat. Mendel 536. Marble base with signature Inv. No. 744. Cat. Mendel 537. Inscription TAM V,2 1358.  
Menekrates

Μενεκράτης (Latin, Menecrates), also referred to as Menekrates of Rhodes

Sculptor and perhaps architect. Perhaps from Rhodes, 2nd century BC.
  Mentioned by Pliny the Elder as the teacher or adoptive father of the sculptors Apollonius (Απολλώνιος) and Tauriscus (Ταυρίσκος), sons of Artemidorus (Ἀρτεμίδωρος). The brothers' marble statue group of Dirce and the Bull, taken from Rhodes to Rome, is listed among several artworks displayed in the buildings of Gaius Asinius Pollio (75 BC - 4 AD):

"... Hermerotes, by Tauriscus, not the chaser in silver, already mentioned, but a native of Tralles; a Jupiter Hospitalis by Papylus, a pupil of Praxiteles; Zethus and Amphion, with Dirce, the Bull, and the halter, all sculptured from a single block of marble, the work of Apollonius and Tauriscus, and brought to Rome from Rhodes. These two artists made it a sort of rivalry as to their parentage, for they declared that, although Artemidorus was their natural progenitor, Menecrates would appear to have been their father."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4. At Perseus Digital Library.

(The Perseus translation has "Apollodorus" for the name of the father, but the Latin text and other translations have "Artemidorus".)

 
As is often the case with Pliny, it is not clear if the Tauriscus, "a native of Tralles" (Tralleis, Τράλλεις, Caria) mentioned earlier is the same person as the brother of Apollonius. Some scholars, believing them to be the same, refer to the brothers as Apollonius and Tauriscus of Tralles.

It is thought that the much-restored statue group known as the "Farnese Bull" may be a 3rd century AD copy of the work by Apollonius and Tauriscus, probably made in the late 2nd or early 1st century. The colossal marble sculpture was discovered in 1546 at the gymnasium of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, during excavations commissioned by Pope Paul III (Alessandro Farnese, pope 1534-1549). It is now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Inv. No. 6002.

In his poem Mosella, the Roman poet Ausonius (circa 310-395 AD) mentioned a Menecrates among a list of famous Greek architects and sculptors, probably taken from Marcus Terentius Varro's lost work Hebdomades vel de imaginibus. Unfortunately, we are not told which eye-catching work he made at Ephesus.

"... perchance here nourished the craft of renowned Menecrates, and that skill which draws all eyes at Ephesus..."

Ausonius, Mosella, § 298. At ToposText.

Read the full quote and more about Ausonius and Varro on the Deinokrates page (currently being rewritten).


It has been suggested that Menekrates was one of the sculptors who worked on the Great Altar of Zeus in Pergamon:

"Both Tauriskos and Apollonios were adopted by Menecrates, son of Menecrates, one of the artists of the Pergamon frieze."

Guy Dickens, Hellenistic sculpture, pages 48-49. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1920. At the Internet Archive.

Unfortunately, no evidence or references are provided by Dickens or others who have repeated this claim. It is not known who designed the altar or made the friezes and other sculptures for it, and these questions has long been subjects of debate and speculation.
 
Menestratos (of Athens)

Μενέστρατος

Dates and places unknown, perhaps from Athens, 4th century BC
  "At Rome... A Hercules, too, by Menestratus, is greatly admired; and there is a Hecate of his at Ephesus, in the Temple of Diana [Artemis] there, behind the sanctuary. The keepers of the temple recommend persons, when viewing it, to be careful of their eyes, so remarkably radiant is the marble."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4.


The 2nd century AD Syrian Christian theologian Tatian (Τατιανός; Latin, Tatianus; circa 120-180 AD) mentioned a statue by a sculptor named Menestratos of a poetess named Learchis, who is otherwise unknown:

"For Lysippus cast a statue of Praxilla, whose poems contain nothing useful, and Menestratus one of Learchis, and Selanion one of Sappho the courtesan, and Naucydes one of Erinna the Lesbian, and Boiscus one of Myrtis, and Cephisodotus one of Myro of Byzantium, and Gomphus one of Praxigoris, and Amphistratus one of Clito."

Address to the Greeks (Oratio ad Graecos), chapter 33 (section 502). At Early Christian Writings.

A limestone base of a bronze statue of the hero Ptoios (Πτώϊον) inscribed with the signature of Menestratos of Athens (see below) was found along with other inscribed blocks in 1898 at the church of Agios Georgios, Akraifnio (Ακραίφνιο; before 1933 known as Karditsa, Καρδίτσα), the location of the ancient city of Akraiphia (Ἀκραιφία), Boeotia, central Greece. The inscription has been dated to the 4th century BC, and it is thought that the sculptor may have been the Menestratos referred to by Pliny and Tatian. The theory is perhaps supported by the fact that all the other known artists in Tatian's list, including Lysippos, Silanion, Naukydes, Kephisodotos (probably Kephisodotos the Younger) and Amphistratos, were also working in the 4th century BC.

The French archaeologist Paul Perdrizet (1870-1938), who was sent to Akraiphia by the French Archaeological School at Athens (l’École française d’archéologie d’Athènes) to investigate the inscriptions and first published them, suggested that the statue may have been taken to Rome (see links to his articles below). Indentations on the top of the base show that it had supported two separate statues of standing figures, and the second is thought to have been set up to replace Menestratos's statue during the Roman Imperial period.
 
The signature of the sculptor Menestratos of Athens at My Favourite Planet

A drawing of the front of the limestone base of a bronze statue of
the hero Ptoios, inscribed with a dedication by the city of Akraiphia
and the signature of the sculptor Menestratos of Athens.

4th century BC. Found in 1898 at Akraiphia (Ἀκραιφία),
Boeotia. Height 38 cm, width 106 cm, depth 77 cm.

Ἀκρηφιεῖε[ς Εἴ]ρωι Πτωίοι. Ἀρξάντων Εὐμάριος
Καφισοδωρίω, Ὀλυμπίωνος Λυσ[ι]νίω, Μελίτωνος
Ὁμολωιχίω, Καφισοδώρω Πτωιοδωρίω,
Ἀθανοδώρω Δαμαγαθίω.
Μενέστατος Άθηναῖος ἐπόησε.

The Akraiphians to the hero Ptoios. Under the direction of Eumaron
son of Kaphisodoros, Olympion son of Lysinos, Meliton
son of Omoloichos, Kaphisodoros son of Ptoiodoros,
Athanodoros son of Damagathos.
Menestratos of Athens made it.

Thebes Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 648.

Source: Paul Perdrizet, Inscriptions d'Acraephiae, Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Année 1898, 22, pages 241-260 (drawing on page 143). At Persée.

See also:

Paul Perdrizet, Inscriptions d'Acraephiae, Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, Année 1900, 24, page 70-81 (particularly pages 80-81) At Persée.

"Acraephiae - Inscriptions", (Archaeological News, September - December 1898), in American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 3 (second series), page 255. Archaeological Institute of America, 1899. At the Internet Archive.

"Acraephiae - Inscriptions", (Archaeological News, January - June 1901), in American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 5 (second series), pages 337-338. Archaeological Institute of America, 1901. At the Internet Archive.

Francesca Giovagnorio, Dedications for the Hero Ptoios in Akraiphia, Boeotia, Rosetta Journal, Issue 22, Spring 2018, pages 18-39. PDF at the Department of Classics, Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Birmingham, UK.
 
Menestratos of Pergamon

Μενέστρατος Ἱππίου Περγαμηνὸς (Menestratos, son of Hippias of Pergamon)

Late Hellenistic period
  A group of six Late Hellenistic marble portrait statues were found 2004-2006 by Turkish archaeologists at the Bouleuterion of Aigai (Αἰγαί), Aeolia, western Anatolia (35 km south of Pergamon). Among them were two lifesize standing statues of men, now headless, wearing himations. Both figures are supported by tree trunks inscribed with the signature of the sculptor:

Μενέστρατος Ἱππίου Περγαμηνὸς ἐποίει

Menestratos, son of Hippias of Pergamon

Inscription SEG 58 1368

The statues, thought to have been made in the workshop of Menestratos in Pergamon before being taken to Aigai, are now in the excavation depot of the Manisa Archaeological Museum. Inv. Nos. A04.Pl.3 and A04.Pl.4.

See: Yusuf Sezgin and Serdar Aybek, A group of portrait statues from the Bouleuterion of Aigia: A preliminary report, pages 32-35. At academia.edu.

Menestratos and Hippias (Ἱππίας) were both common names in the ancient Greek world, and the authors point out that they are two of the most commonly used names in Pergamon during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC.
 
Mikon of Syracuse

Μίκων

Early 3rd century BC

Son of Nikeratos (Νικήρατος) of Syracuse
  Pausanias mentioned two statues of the Greek Sicilian Tyrant of Syracuse Hiero II (Ἱέρων Β΄, circa 308-215 BC) at Olympia by "Mikon, son of Nikeratos of Syracuse" (Μίκων Νικηράτου Συρακούσιος):

"The statues of Hiero at Olympia, one on horseback and the other on foot, were dedicated by the sons of Hiero, the artist being Micon, a Syracusan, the son of Niceratus."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 12, section 4.

Since the statues were dedicated by Hiero's sons, it is thought that they were made shortly after his death in 215 BC.

Mikon of Syracuse may have been the sculptor of bronze statues referred to by Pliny the Elder:

"Micon is admired for his athletes."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

Pausanias attributed a statue of an athlete he saw at Olympia to "the Athenian painter Micon" (Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 6, section 1). See Mikon the Elder of Athens.
 
Mnesikles

Μνησικλής

Sculptor and architect, 5th century BC

Athens
  According to Plutarch, Mnesikles designed the Propylaia of the Athens Acropolis, and he may have also been the architect of the Erechtheion.

Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Pericles, 13.7-8.

Nothing is known of his life or other work.
 
Myron

Μύρων (Myron of Eleutherai)

Mid 5th century BC, working circa 480-440 BC

He was an Athenian citizen, born in Eleutherai (Ἐλευθεραί), on the border between Attica and Boeotia.

Like Pheidias and Polykleitos, he may have been a pupil of Ageladas of Argos, and was working during the 90th Olympiad, as a contemporary of Phradmon, Pythagoras, Skopas, and Perellus. (Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19).

According to Pliny and Pausanias, he was the father of Lykios (Pliny, Natural History, 34, 79; Pausanias, 1, 23, 7 and 5, 22, 3).
  Pausanias mentioned a number of statues of victorious athletes by Myron at Olympia:

"Xenarces [a horse-breeder from Sparta] succeeded in winning other victories, at Delphi, at Argos and at Corinth. Lycinus brought foals to Olympia, and when one of them was disqualified, entered his foals for the race for full-grown horses, winning with them. He also dedicated two statues at Olympia, works of Myron the Athenian."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 2, section 2. At Perseus Digital Library.

The notes by the translators of this edition, W. H. S. Jones and H. A. Ormerod, state: "Myron flourished about 460 B.C., and the race for foals was not introduced till 384 B.C. Hence, either the Greek text must be emended, or some other Myron, and not the earlier sculptor of that name, must be referred to here."

"The statue of Timanthes of Cleonae, who won the crown in the pancratium for men, was made by Myron of Athens..."

Book 6, chapter 8, section 4.

"After Baucis are statues of Arcadian athletes: Euthymenes from Maenalus itself, who won the men's and previously the boys' wrestling-match; Philip, an Azanian from Pellana, who beat the boys at boxing, and Critodamus from Cleitor, who like Philip was proclaimed victor in the boys' boxing match. The statue of Euthymenes for his victory over the boys was made by Alypus; the statue of Damocritus was made by Cleon, and that of Philip the Azanian by Myron."

Book 6, chapter 8, section 5.

"There is also set up in Olympia a slab recording the victories of Chionis the Lacedaemonian. They show simplicity who have supposed that Chionis himself dedicated the slab, and not the Lacedaemonian people. Let us assume that, as the slab says, the race in armour had not yet been introduced; how could Chionis know whether the Eleans would at some future time add it to the list of events? But those are simpler still who say that the statue standing by the slab is a portrait of Chionis, it being the work of the Athenian Myron."

Book 6, chapter 13, section 2.

 
 
On the Acropolis in Athens, Pausanias recorded a statue of Perseus after beheading Medusa by Myron as well as a bronze by his son Lykios.

"I remember looking at other things also on the Athenian Acropolis, a bronze boy holding the sprinkler, by Lycius son of Myron, and Myron's Perseus after beheading Medusa."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 23, section 7. At Perseus Digital Library.

He also noted that Myron made the cult statue of Hekate for the temple of the goddess in Aegina.

"Of the gods, the Aeginetans worship most Hecate, in whose honor every year they celebrate mystic rites which, they say, Orpheus the Thracian established among them. Within the enclosure is a temple; its wooden image is the work of Myron, and it has one face and one body. It was Alcamenes [Alkamenes], in my opinion, who first made three images of Hecate attached to one another, a figure called by the Athenians Epipurgidia [Ἐπιπυργιδία, on the Tower]; it stands beside the temple of the Wingless Victory [Temple of Athena Nike on the Athens Acropolis]."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 30, section 2. At Perseus Digital Library.

On Mount Helikon (Ἑλικὼν ὀρῶν) in Boeotia stood a standing statue of Dionysus by Myron. It had been dedicated by the Roman general Sulla who had taken it from Orchomenos (Ὀρχομενός) in Boeotia.

"There is also on Helicon a bronze Apollo fighting with Hermes for the lyre. There is also a Dionysus by Lysippus; the standing image, however, of Dionysus, that Sulla dedicated, is the most noteworthy of the works of Myron after the Erectheus at Athens. What he dedicated was not his own; he took it away from the Minyae of Orchomenus. This is an illustration of the Greek proverb, 'to worship the gods with other people's incense.'"

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 9, chapter 30, section 1. At Perseus Digital Library.

Pliny the Elder devoted quite a bit of space to Myron and his works.

"Myron of Eleutheae, who was also the pupil of Agelades, was rendered more particularly famous by his statue of a heifer, celebrated in many well-known lines: so true is it, that most men owe their renown more to the genius of others, than to their own.

He also made the figure of a dog, a Discobolus, a Perseus, the Pristae [Sawyers], a Satyr [Marsyas] admiring a flute, and a Minerva, the Delphic Pentathletes, the Pancratiastae, and a Hercules, which is at the Circus Maximus, in the house of Pompeius Magnus.

Erinna, in her poems, makes allusion to a monument which he erected to a cricket and a locust. He also executed the Apollo, which, after being taken from the Ephesians by the Triumvir Antonius, was restored by the Emperor Augustus, he having been admonished to do so in a dream.

Myron appears to have been the first to give a varied development to the art, having made a greater number of designs than Polycletus, and shewn more attention to symmetry. And yet, though he was very accurate in the proportions of his figures, he has neglected to give expression; besides which, he has not treated the hair and the pubes with any greater attention than is observed in the rude figures of more ancient times."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

"As to Myron, who is so highly praised for his works in bronze, there is by him at Smyrna, An Old Woman Intoxicated, a work that is held in high estimation."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4.

His statue of a heifer was also mentioned by Ovid (De Ponto) and several epigrammatic poets. The Byzantine author Procopius (500 - circa 565 AD) reported that the staue was in Rome. There is no known surviving copy.

Several Roman period marble statues of a discus thrower are thought to be copies of the bronze Discobolus (Δισκοβόλος) made by Myron around 460-450 BC, mentioned by Pliny, Quintilian and Lucian. They include:

The "Palombara Discobolus" or "Lancellotti Discobolus" (see photo below), the first example of the type to be discovered. Found in 1781 at the Villa Palombara on the Esquiline Hill, Rome. The right arm and the left foot have been re-attached. The right calf, the fingers of the left hand, the oval base over the ancient plinth and perhaps the lower part of the discus are restorations. Height 155 cm (without the modern base). Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, National Museum of Rome. Inv. No. 126371.

Part of another Discobolus statue of the Lancellotti type (see photo below) was found in the so-called "Villa del Discobolo", Villa Reale, Castel Porziano (ancient Porcigliano), Rome, in 1906. The head, right arm, fingers of the left hand and lower legs are missing. Restored from fourteen fragments, with the addition of parts in plaster: on the left thigh, the palm-trunk support and the base. Parian marble. Height 148 cm (with the base). Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, National Museum of Rome, Inv. No. 56039.

The "Townley Discobolus" (see photo below). Found in 1791 at Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, near Rome. British Museum, London. Height 169 cm. Inv. No. 1805,0703.43 (Sculpture 250). Acquired from the Townley Collection in 1805.

Another marble Discobolos found around the same time at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli is now in the Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums, Rome. Inv. No. 2349.

A torso of Carrara marble thought to be of a Discobolus statue, found in Rome in the early 18th century, was restored by the French sculptor Pierre-Étienne Monnot (1658-1733) as a wounded warrior. Palazzo Nuovo, Capitoline Museums, Rome. Inv. No. MC0241. Donated by Pope Clement XII.

Myron's bronze statue group of Athena and the satyr Marsyas was set up on the Athens Acropolis around 460-450 BC.

A marble statue of a nude Zeus from the Nymphaeum of Herodes Atticus in Olympia is thought to be a copy of a work of Myron, made around 460 BC. Olympia Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. Λ 109. See photo on the Herodes Atticus page.

Martial (6.92, 8.51) mentioned cups, probably of chased silver, made by Myron.
 
Two Discobolus statues of the Lancellotti type in the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome at My Favourite Planet

The two Discobolus statues of the Lancellotti type exhibited side by
side in the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, National Museum of Rome.
The "Palombara Discobolus" or "Lancellotti Discobolus" is on the right.
The Townley Discobolus marble statue of a discus thrower at My Favourite Planet

The "Townley Discobolus", marble statue of a discus thrower.

2nd century AD, Roman period. Thought to be a copy of the
bronze Diskobolos (Δισκοβόλος) by Myron, around 460-450 BC.
Found in 1791 at Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, near Rome. Height 169 cm,
width 105 cm, depth 63 cm.

British Museum, London. Inv. No. 1805,0703.43 (Sculpture 250).
Acquired from the Townley Collection in 1805.

(Exhibited in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum in 2010.)

The statue was purchased at public auction in Rome in 1792 by the English antiquarian and art dealer Thomas Jenkins, who sold it to the English collector Charles Townley (1737-1805) for £400. After it was placed in Townley's gallery in London in 1794, Richard Payne Knight noticed that the head had been incorrectly restored to face forwards rather than back (as on the "Palombara Discobolus").  
 
Sculptors N
Naukydes of Argos

Ναυκύδης (Latin, Naucydes)

Late 5th - early 4th century BC

From Argos, northeastern Peloponnese.

According to Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 22, section 7), Naukydes was the son of Mothonos (Μόθωνος) and the brother of Polykleitos, who was also a sculptor but perhaps not Polykleitos of Argos (Polykleitos the Elder). Pausanias also mentions another Polykleitos of Argos as a pupil of Naukydes Olympia:

"Polycleitus of Argos, not the artist who made the image of Hera, but a pupil of Naucydes, made the statue of a boy wrestler, Agenor of Thebes [at Olympia]."

Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 6, section 2.

It has been suggested that this pupil may have been the son of the more famous Polykleitos of Argos (Polykleitos the Elder), often referred to as Polykleitos the Younger.
  Works by Naukydes were mentioned by Pliny the Elder, Pausanias and Tatian. They include: a chryselephantine statue of Hebe for the Temple of Hera in Argos; statues of Hekate, Hermes, the poetess Erinna (Ἤριννα, see Menestratos), and Phrixus; a Discobolos (discus thrower), known as the Discobolus of Naukydes, mentioned by Pliny.

"Naucydes is admired for a Mercury, a Discobolus, and a Man sacrificing a Ram."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

A marble statue of Hermes with a ram, 2nd century AD, is thought to be a copy of a late 5th century BC original by Naukydes. Found in Troezen, Peloponnese. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 243.
 
Nesiotes

Νησιώτης

Early 5th century BC

From Argos, northeastern Peloponnese.
  Kritios and Nesiotes made the statue pair of the "Tyrannicides" (Τυραννοκτόνοι) Harmodius and Aristogeiton, set up in the Athenian Agora in 477 BC to replace those made Antenor, which had been taken as booty by Xerxes I of Persia in 480 BC (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 8, section 5).

See Kritios above.
 
 
Sculptors O
Onatas of Aegina

Ὀνάτας

Sculptor in bronze, active around 480-450 BC

Son of Mikon from Aegina
  For further details, see the
Onatas of Aegina page.
 
 
Sculptors P
Paionios of Mende

Παιώνιος

2nd half of the 5th century BC

From Mende (Μένδη), on the west coast of the Pallene peninsula, Halkidiki
  According to Pausanias, Paionios made the sculptures for the east pediment, above the entrance to the Great Temple of Zeus at Olympia, and those on the west pediment were by Alkamenes. However, Paionios may have made the sculptures on both pediments.

"The sculptures in the front pediment are by Paeonius, who came from Mende in Thrace; those in the back pediment are by Alcamenes, a contemporary of Pheidias, ranking next after him for skill as a sculptor."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 5, section 10. At Perseus Digital Library.

Paionios also made the akroteria for the temple as well as a statue of Nike in Olympia, around 425-420 BC. The fragments of the 1.98 metre high "Nike of Paionios" statue of Parian marble, now reassembled in the Olympia Archaeological Museum (Inv. No. 46-48), were discovered 1875-1880 by German archaeologists at the east side of the temple. The complete figure, with the now missing wing tips, is thought to have been around 3 metres tall. Parts of the 8.81 metre high triangular base of the statue, including the dedicatory inscription of the victory monument, were found at the same time:

"The Messenians and Naupaktians dedicated this to Olympian Zeus as a tithe from their enemies. Paionios of Mende made it and was victorious in making the akroteria for the temple."

Inscription: Olympia 5, No. 259.

The Nike was mentioned by Pausanias:

"The Dorian Messenians who at one time received Naupaktos from the Athenians dedicated at Olympia the image of Nike on a pillar. It is the work of Paionios of Mende, made from spoils taken from the enemy, I think from the war with the Akarnanians and the people of Oiniadai.

The Messenians themselves say that their dedication resulted from their exploit on the island of Sphakteria along with the Athenians, and that they did not inscribe the name of the enemy through fear of the Spartans, whereas they had no fear at all of the people of Oiniadai and Akarnania."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 26.

Paionios is thought to have made the reliefs on the balustrade around the Temple of Athena Nike on the Athens Acropolis, circa 427-421 BC (see also Kallimachos).

It has been suggested that he may have also worked on the interior frieze of the Temple of Apollo Epikourios at Bassai (see Iktinos under architects), although this has been refuted. Surviving parts of the frieze, now in the British Museum, depict an amazonomachy (a battle between Athenians and Amazons) and a centauromachy (a battle between Lapiths and Centaurs).

It has also been suggested that he may have made the marble statue group known as the Dying Children of Niobe, surviving parts of which are now in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. The group has also been conjecturally attributed to Praxiteles and Skopas, although, according to another theory, they may be Roman period copies, perhaps from the reign of Nero (54-68 AD).
 
Pasiteles

Πασιτέλης

Also referred to as Pasiteles the Younger

Sculptor and art historian

1st century BC

A Roman citizen from Magna Graecia, Italy, working in Rome in the 2nd century BC.
  Pliny the Elder wrote that "Pasiteles speaks in terms of high admiration" of the statues of the Thespian Muses, the "Thespiades" from Thespiae in Boeotia, taken to Rome by Lucius Mummius Achaicus and set up near the Temple of Felicity.

"Pasiteles, too, speaks in terms of high admiration of them, the artist who wrote five books on the most celebrated works throughout the world.

Born upon the Grecian shores of Italy [Magna Graecia], and presented with the Roman citizenship granted to the cities of those parts, Pasiteles constructed the ivory statue of Jupiter which is now in the temple of Metellus, on the road to the Campus Martius.

It so happened, that being one day at the Docks, where there were some wild beasts from Africa, while he was viewing through the bars of a cage a lion which he was engaged in drawing, a panther made its escape from another cage, to the no small danger of this most careful artist.

He executed many other works, it is said, but we do not find the names of them specifically mentioned."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

The "temple of Metellus" was the Temple of Jupiter Stator, thought to have been designed by the Cypriot architect Hermodoros of Salamis, in the Porticus of Metellus (later renamed the Porticus Octaviae). The "Docks" were probably the Navalia, the port on left bank of the River Tiber, also thought to be the work of Hermodoros.See Hermodoros of Salamis.

Citing Marcus Terentius Varro , Pliny also reported that Pasiteles made clay models of his designs before making the sculptures, a practice he said had been introduced to Greek art by Lysistratos of Sikyon, brother of Lysippos.

"Varro praises Pasiteles also, who used to say, that the plastic art was the mother of chasing, statuary, and sculpture, and who, excellent as he was in each of these branches, never executed any work without first modelling it. In addition to these particulars, he states that the art of modelling was anciently cultivated in Italy, Etruria in particular."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 35, chapter 45.
 
Pheidias

Φειδίας (Phidias)

Circa 480-430 BC

Athens

A sculptor, painter and architect, Pheidias was the son of Charmides of Athens, and a friend of Pericles. He may have been a pupil of Hegias of Athens and Ageladas of Argos.

Pheidias is thought to have been the prime mover in the design of Classical Greek sculpture, and is considered by many to be the greatest Ancient Greek sculptor.

"Among all nations which the fame of the Olympian Jupiter has reached, Phidias is looked upon, beyond all doubt, as the most famous of artists."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

It has been suggested that Pheidias' first teacher may have been the Athenian painter Euenor (or Evenor), the father of Parrhasius with whom he later collaborated on the shield of Athena Promachos statue on the Athens Acropolis (Pausanias, Book 1, chapter 28, section 2).

During the 470s Pheidias is thought to have learned bronze sculpting from Hegias. This is based on a passage from one of the Discourses (or Orations, Λόγοι) by the Greek orator, philosopher and historian Dio Chrysostom (Δίων Χρυσόστομος Dion Chrysostomos, circa 40-115 AD):

"Interlocutor. Since you make it evident that on general grounds you are an admirer of Socrates and also that you are filled with wonder at the man as revealed in his words, you can tell me of which among the sages he was a pupil; just as, for example, Pheidias the sculptor was a pupil of Hegias, and Polygnotus the painter and his brother were both pupils of their father Aglaophon, and Pherecydes is said to have been a teacher of Pythagoras, and Pythagoras in turn a teacher of Empedocles and Sophocles."

Dio Chrysostom, Discourses, No. 55: On Homer and Socrates. At LacusCurtius.

Soon after he may have moved to the Peloponnese to study with Ageladas. The scholiast (commentator) on Aristophanes' Frogs (line 504), named Ageladas as the teacher of Pheidias, but also wrote that he made the statue of Herakles Alexikakos (Ἡρακλῆς Ἀλεξίκακος, the averter of evil) set up in the Attic deme of Melite to commemorate the deliverance from the great plague (87th Olympiad, 430-427 BC) during the Peloponnesian War. This is probably too late for the assumed dates of the career of Ageladas of Argos, and there may have been two sculptors named Ageladas (see Ageladas of Argos).

See: Antonio Corso, The art of Praxiteles: The development of Praxiteles' workshop and its cultural tradition until the sculptor's acme (364-1 BC), page 8. L'Erma di Bretschneider, Rome, 2004.

According to Plutarch (Life of Pericles, 13), Pheidias was accused by enemies of Pericles of stealing gold intended for the Athena Parthenos statue, and of impiety for portraying Pericles and himself among the figures of the Amazonomachy on the statue's shield (see the "Strangford Shield" on Athens Acropolis gallery page 13). Having been warned by Pericles to carefully weigh the gold, Pheidias was able to disprove the charge of theft, but he was found guilty of impiety, and died while in prison.

According to other sources, mentioned by scholiasts, Pheidias was banished from Athens and was condemned to death and executed while in Elis after completing the statue of Zeus at Olympia.
  Pheidias was responsible for the overall planning of the Periclean Acropolis building project and designed and made many of the sculptures for the new buildings, including the chryselephantine Athena Parthenos statue (between around 447 and 438 BC) for the Parthenon (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 24, sections 5-7; Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4), as well as the colossal bronze Athena Promachos which stood between the Parthenon and the Propylaia.

(See an illustrated article on a copy of the Athena Parthenos statue from Pegamon.)

Around 432 BC he made the colossal chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia (Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4), later to be included as one of Philo of Byzantium's Seven Wonders of the World. According to Strabo (Geography, Book 8, chapter 3, section 30) parts of the statue, particularly the garment as well as the screens around the god's throne, were painted by the painter Panainos. It was later taken to Constantinople.

In 1958 archaeologists at Olympia discovered the remains of a building containing fragments of ivory and semi-precious stone, terracotta moulds and other casting equipment, as well as a small, black-glaze drinking cup inscribed "Φειδίο εἰμί" (Pheidio eimi, I belong to Pheidias, see photo below), from which they concluded that the building was the workshop of Pheidias, mentioned by Pausanias:

"Outside the Altis [the sanctuary of Zeus] there is a building called the workshop of Pheidias, where he wrought the image of Zeus piece by piece. In the building is an altar to all the gods in common."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 15, section 1.

No extant sculpture can be attributed beyond doubt to Pheidias, although many Roman period statues and statuettes are thought to be copies of his works.

According to Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 3, section 5), Pheidias made the marble statue of Kybele, the Mother of the Gods, in the Metroon (Μητρῷον, a sanctuary dedicated to a mother goddess) in the Athens Agora. However, it is thought that the statue seen by Pausanias may have been the work by Agorakritos of Paros mentioned by Pliny the Elder (Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4). It is thought that the statue depicted the goddess enthroned, with a lion attendant, and holding a tympanon (drum). Several dozen dedicatory reliefs of this image, perhaps based on the statue, have been found in the Agora.

Two almost identical Roman period, reconstructed marble statues of Athena in Dresden (Skulpturensammlung, Albertinum) were controversially identified by the German archaeologist Adolf Furtwängler as copies of Pheidias' bronze "Athena Lemnia" (450-440 BC) from the Athens Acropolis, mentioned by Pausanias as "the best worth seeing of all the works of Phidias" (Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 28, section 2) and Lucian (Imagines, 4 and 6).
 
Pheidias' cup in Olympia at My Favourite Planet

"Pheidias' cup", fragments of a small black-glazed ceramic vessel,
inscribed on the base "ΦΕΙΔΙΟ ΕΙΜΙ" (I belong to Pheidias).

Second half of the 5th century BC. Found in Pheidias'
workshop in the sanctuary of Zeus, Olympia, Greece.

Olympia Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. P 3653.

Usually referred to as part of a small drinking cup, it has also been described as an oenochoe (wine jug). It is a kothos (or kothon), a drinking cup of the type named "Pheidias cup" after the vessel found in Olympia (see photo, right).

Discovered by archaeologists in 1958 in the ruins of the building identified as the workshop in which Pheidias made the sculptures for the Temple of Zeus, including the colossal chryselephantine (gold and ivory) statue of the god. The workshop (see photo below) stood just to the west (behind) the temple and had the same orientation and dimensions, presumably so that Pheidias could assess the effects of light and space on the statue when installed. In the 5th - 6th centuries AD it was converted into a three-aisled Christian basilica, and was the only building to survive earthquakes in 522 and 551 AD which devastated the sanctuary.

Other inscribed vessels found in the workshop are displayed in the museum so that the inscriptions can be clearly seen. However, for some reason this vessel is now displayed upright, and visitors have to peer deep into the glass case at the tiny scratched inscription - the most important object in the case - reflected in a small mirror beneath it, and in its shadow. Needless to say, it is impossible for mere mortals (even those with zoom lenses) to even see the faint, mirror-inversed graffito. A very poor and disappointing design decision in an otherwise excellent museum.

See also: a plate found in the workshop with a painting of Perseus with the head of Medusa.
 
A Pheidias cup from Kerameikos, Athens at My Favourite Planet

A kothos, a drinking cup of the type
named "Pheidias cup" after the vessel
found in Pheidias' workshop in Olympia.

Found during excavations southwest of
the Kerameikos cemetery, Athens, during
the construction of the first Metro line.
It is thought that many of the dead in a
mass grave in this cemetery extension
were hastily buried victims of the plague
that struck Athens in 430/429 and
427/426 BC (Thucydides, History of the
Peloponnesian War
, Book 2, chapter 47).

Kerameikos Archaeological Museum.
A model of Pheidias' workshop in Olympia at My Favourite Planet

A model of Pheidias' workshop in Olympia, after a reconstruction by Alfred and Eva Mallwitz.

Scale 1:50.

Olympia Archaeological Museum.
Philon, son of Emporion

Φίλον ℎὀνπορίονος (Philon, son of Emporion)

Early 5th century BC

Athens

It is generally assumed that an artist only mentioned his father in a signature if he was also an artist. However, Emporion does not appear anywhere else as a proper name.

Philon, son of Emporion is not mentioned in ancient literary sources. Pliny the Elder mentions a Philon in a list of sculptors who made bronze statues of "athletes, armed men, hunters, and sacrificers" (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19). However, this is thought to be a Philon of the Hellenistic period associated with a bronze monument of Hephaistion, the friend of Alexander the Great, designed by Lysippos.
  The signature of Philon, son of Emporion has survived on the marble bases of three votive dedications, all found near the North Wall of the Athens Acropolis in the 19th century. Nothing else is known about his work, and it has even been suggested that he may have been a stonemason rather than a sculptor.

1. A Fragment of a marble base of a perirrhanterion (περιρραντήριον, lustral basin) inscribed vertically with the signature of Philon, son of Emporion. Around 500-475 BC. Found between 1877 and 1886. See photo below.

2. A fragment of an unfluted column dedication inscribed vertically with the signature of Philon, son of Emporion. Found before 1888.

[Φίλ]ον ℎὀν-
[πορί]ονος
[ἐπ]οίεσεν

Philon,
son of Emporion,
made it.

Inscription IG I(3) 778 (also IG I(2) 509; Antony E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis [DAA], No. 37).

Acropolis Museum (formerly in the courtyard of the old Acropolis Museum). Height without tenon 115 cm, upper diameter 23 cm, lower diameter 26 cm; bottom broken. Diameter of tenon on top 14 cm, height of tenon 5 cm.

3. A fragment of a fluted column dedication of Pentelic marble. Found between 1877 and 1886. Only part of the signature has survived, and has been restored on the basis of the similarity of the letter forms to those of the previous two.

[Φίλον ℎὀνπορίονος ἐποίε]σεν.
[ὁ δεῖνα - - - ἀ]νέθεκεν.

[Philon, son of Emporion,] made it.
[o deina - - - ] dedicated it.

Inscription IG I(2) 519 (Antony E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis [DAA], No. 12).

Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 6282.

Height 37 cm, diameter circa 20 cm. 18 flutes; width of flute 3.6 - 3.8 cm.
 
The signature of the sculptor Philon, son of Emporion at My Favourite Planet

A Fragment of a marble base of a perirrhanterion (περιρραντήριον, lustral basin)
inscribed vertically with the signature of the artist Philon, son of Emporion.

Around 500-475 BC. Found between 1877 and 1886 near the North Wall of
the Athens Acropolis. Pentelic marble. Height 48 cm, upper diameter 19 cm.
16 flutes; width of flute 3 cm. Diameter of foot of pedestal 49 cm, height of
foot 10 cm. This is the only marble basin on which an artist's signature is
preserved. The dedication was probably inscribed on the lip of the basin.

Φίλον με ἐποίεσεν
ℎὀνπορίονος {Ἐνπορίονος}

Philon made me,
son of Emporion.

Inscription IG I³ 777 (also IG I² 508; Antony E. Raubitschek,
Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis [DAA], No. 381).

Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 6267.
Polyeuktos

Πολευκτος (Polyeuctos)

Early 3rd century BC

Athens

A pupil of Lysippos
  Polyeuktos made a bronze statue of Demosthenes which was erected near the Altar of the Twelve Gods in the Athenian Agora in 280 BC, 42 years after the orator's death.  
Polykleitos the Elder

Πολύκλειτος (much-renowned)

Also referred to as Polykleitos of Argos, Polykleitos of Sikyon, or Polykleitos the Elder. Spellings include Polyklitos, Polycletus, Polycleitus or Polyclitus.

5th century BC; thought to have been born circa 480 BC and active around 460-420 BC.

According to Pliny the Elder, he was working during the 90th Olympiad (420 BC), at the same time as Phradmon, Myron, Pythagoras, Skopas, and Perellus (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19).

Like Myron, he was a pupil of Ageladas of Argos (Pliny the Elder, Book 34, chapter 19), who may have taught at Argos.

He was either from Argos (Plato, Protagoras, section 311c; Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 3, chapter 18, section 8) or Sikyon, northern Peloponnese (Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19). This may indicate that Pliny and other ancient authors conflated two separate artists, one from Sikyon and the other from Argos. Modern theories suggest that he may have been a native of Sikyon but was given citizenship of Argos following his training there or for his work at the Heraion.

Pliny the Elder named his pupils as Argius, Asopodorus (these two may have been one person, the Argive Asopodorus), Alexis, Aristides, Phrynon, Dinon, Athenodorus, and Demeas the Clitorian (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19). Pupils named by Pausanias were Periclytus (Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 17, section 4) and Kanachos the Younger of Sikyon (Book 6, chapter 13, section 7).

An artist or artists named Polykleitos are mentioned by Cicero, Galen, Lucian, Pausanias, Philo of Byzantium, Plato, Pliny the Elder, Plutarch, Quintilian, Strabo and Vitruvius. As with other artists referred to by ancient authors, it is unclear whether they were writing about the same artist, or even whether the several references to Polykleitos by Pausanias and Pliny the Elder concern one or more artists of this name. It is generally thought that there were at least two.

Since some works ascribed to Polykleitos are thought to have been made after the period estimated by modern scholars for his career, the maker of the later works has been conjecturally named "Polykleitos the Younger", perhaps the son or grandson of "Polykleitos the Elder". It is further thought that the later sculptor may have been responsible for the statues of athletes at Olympia mentioned by Pausanias (see below).

Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 27, section 5) wrote that Polykleitos designed the tholos and the great theatre at Epidauros. Again, it has been suggested that this was Polykleitos the Younger. However, the theatre is thought to have been built around 340-320 BC (or later), which is considered too late for the dates assumed for the lifetimes of father, son or even grandson. See Polykleitos in the architects section.

He also mentioned a Polykleitos as a brother of Naukydes (probably Naukydes of Argos, late 5th - early 4th century BC), son of Mothonos, and a Polykleitos of Argos, a pupil of Naukydes (see Polykleitos, son of Mothonos). It is possible that one of these was the "Polykleitos the Younger" responsible for the later works including the buildings at Epidauros, and equally possible that they were the same person.
  Polykleitos wrote a treatise, known as the Kanon (or Canon; Κάνον, literally rule or law), concerning the ideal design of a male nude according to his theories of aesthetics, mathematical proportions, rhythm, balance and symmetry. The work has not survived but is known from references by other ancient authors, including Plutarch, Galen and Philo of Byzantium.

The marble head in Berlin, known as the "Polykletian Diskophoros", is thought to be a Roman period copy, circa 140 AD, of a bronze statue made by Polykleitos around 460 BC.

Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. Sk 1833.

Pliny the Elder on works by Polykleitos

All Pliny's mentions of works by Polykleitos are in Natural History, Book 34, in the chapters dealing with bronze. This is no guarantee that all the works mentioned were made of bronze, and Pausanias described cryselephantine and marble statues by Polykleitos (see below).

Pliny wrote that while Myron used bronze from Aegina, Polykleitos used Delian bronze. "They were contemporaries and fellow-pupils, but there was great rivalry between them as to their materials."

Natural History, Book 34, chapter 5.

Polykleitos is said to have made a statue of an Amazon for the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in a competition with Cydon, Kresilas, Pheidias and Phradmon (of Argos), which may have been a model for one or more extant Amazon statues (see photo below).

"The most celebrated of these artists, though born at different epochs, have joined in a trial of skill in the Amazons which they have respectively made. When these statues were dedicated in the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, it was agreed, in order to ascertain which was the best, that it should be left to the judgment of the artists themselves who were then present: upon which, it was evident that that was the best, which all the artists agreed in considering as the next best to his own. Accordingly, the first rank was assigned to Polycletus, the second to Phidias, the third to Cresilas, the fourth to Cydon, and the fifth to Phradmon.

Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

"Polycletus of Sicyon, the pupil of Agelades, executed the Diadumenos [Diadem-bearer; an athlete tying a victor's headband], the statue of an effeminate youth, and remarkable for having cost one hundred talents; as also the statue of a youth full of manly vigour, and called the Doryphoros [the Spear-bearer].

He also made what the artists have called the Model statue [Canon; the Doryphoros], and from which, as from a sort of standard, they study the lineaments: so that he, of all men, is thought in one work of art to have exhausted all the resources of art.

He also made statues of a man using the body-scraper [a strigil], and of a naked man challenging to play at dice [Talo incessentem]; as also of two naked boys playing at dice, and known as the Astragalizontes [boys playing knuckle-bones]; they are now in the atrium of the Emperor Titus, and it is generally considered, that there can be no work more perfect than this.

He also executed a Mercury [Hermes], which was formerly at Lysimachia [in Thrace]; a Hercules Ageter [the Leader] seizing his arms, which is now at Rome; and an Artemon, which has received the name of Periphoretos [Carried about].

Polycletus is generally considered as having attained the highest excellence in statuary, and as having perfected the toreutic art [metalworking], which Phidias invented. A discovery which was entirely his own, was the art of placing statues on one leg [contrapposto]. It is remarked, however, by Varro, that his statues are all square-built, and made very much after the same model."

Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

Several extant Roman period marble statues of a Diadumenos are thought to be copies of Polykleitos' bronze original.

Lysippos "also made the statue of Hephaestion, the friend of Alexander the Great, which some persons attribute to Polycletus, whereas that artist lived nearly a century before his time."

Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.
 
Both Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero, 106-43 BC) and Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, circa 35-100 AD) saw an evolution in technique and aesthetic quality from the time of Greek artists such as Kanachos of Sikyon (the Elder), Kallon and Hegesias (see Hegias), in the late 6th - early 5th century, approaching a zenith in the works of Polykleitos. Quintilian added Pheidias, Alkamenes, Lysippos and Praxiteles to the evolutionary curve.

"But who that has seen the statues of the moderns, will not perceive in a moment, that the figures of Canachus are too stiff and formal, to resemble life? Those of Calamis, though evidently harsh, are somewhat softer. Even the statues of Myron are not sufficiently alive; and yet you would not hesitate to pronounce them beautiful. But those of Polycletes are much finer, and, in my mind, completely finished. The case is the same in painting; for in the works of Zeuxis, Polygnotus, Timanthes, and several other masters who confined themselves to the use of four colours, we commend the air and the symmetry of their figures; but in Aetion, Nicomachus, Protogenes, and Apelles, every thing is finished to perfection."

Cicero, Brutus, a History of Famous Orators, section 70. At attalus.org.

"The same differences exist between sculptors. The art of Callon and Hegesias is somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans, but the work of Calamis has already begun to be less stiff, while Myron's statues show a greater softness of form than had been achieved by the artists just mentioned.

Polyclitus surpassed all others for care and grace, but although the majority of critics account him as the greatest of sculptors, to avoid making him faultless they express the opinion that his work is lacking in grandeur. For while he gave the human form an ideal grace, he is thought to have been less successful in representing the dignity of the gods. He is further alleged to have shrunk from representing persons of maturer years, and to have ventured on nothing more difficult than a smooth and beardless face.

But the qualities lacking in Polyclitus are allowed to have been possessed by Phidias and Alcamenes. On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods than of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead.

Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work."

Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 12, chapter 10, sections 7-9. At Perseus Digital Library.

Pausanias on works by Polykleitos

The colossal cryselephantine (gold and ivory) cult statue of Hera made for the Heraion near Argos, around 420 BC, perhaps his final work:

"The statue of Hera is seated on a throne; it is huge, made of gold and ivory, and is a work of Polycleitus. She is wearing a crown with Graces and Seasons worked upon it, and in one hand she carries a pomegranate and in the other a sceptre. About the pomegranate I must say nothing, for its story is somewhat of a holy mystery. The presence of a cuckoo seated on the sceptre they explain by the story that when Zeus was in love with Hera in her maidenhood he changed himself into this bird, and she caught it to be her pet. This tale and similar legends about the gods I relate without believing them, but I relate them nevertheless."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 17, section 4.

A seated marble statue of Zeus Meilichios (Ζευς Μειλίχιος, Zeus the Gracious) in the city of Argos, probably made shortly after 417-416 BC:

"Passing over a statue of Creugas, a boxer, and a trophy that was set up to celebrate a victory over the Corinthians, you come to a seated image of Zeus Meilichius (Gracious), made of white marble by Polycleitus. I discovered that it was made for the following reason...

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 20, section 1.

His reason involves an anecdotal account of events during the violent conflict between democrats and Spartan-backed oligarchs in Argos, 417-416 BC. According to his explanation, the statue was made following the restoration of democracy as an act of propitiation to the god for the bloodshed: "Subsequently they had recourse to purifications for shedding kindred blood; among other things they dedicated an image of Zeus Meilichius".

See: Ephraim David, The oligarchic revolution in Argos 417 B.C., in: L'Antiquité Classique, Année 1986, Tome 55, pages 113-124. At Persée.

Marble statues of Leto and her divine twin children Apollo and Artemis in the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia (Ἀρτέμιδa Ὀρθία) on Mount Lykone (Λυκώνη), along the road south from Argos in the direction of Tegea in Arcadia:

"On the top of the mountain is built a sanctuary of Artemis Orthia (of the Steep), and there have been made white marble images of Apollo, Leto, and Artemis, which they say are works of Polycleitus.

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 24, section 5.

A statue of Aphrodite by Polykleitos, among a number of statues beneath tripods set up at Amyklai (Ἀμύκλαι), south of Sparta:

"Aristander of Paros and Polycleitus of Argos have statues here; the former a woman with a lyre, supposed to be Sparta, the latter an Aphrodite called 'beside the Amyclaean'. These tripods are larger than the others, and were dedicated from the spoils of the victory at Aegospotami."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 3, chapter 18, section 8.

Although Pausanias wrote that the tripods were dedicated after the naval Battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC (see Kanachos the Younger), he does not state whether the statues were made at the same time. This date would have been too late for Polykleitos the Elder. Aristander of Paros may have been the father of Skopas.

Among statues of athletes at Olympia attributed by Pausanias to Polykleitos, was the statue of the boy boxing champion Antipater of Miletus:

"By the statue of Thrasybulus stands Timosthenes of Elis, winner of the foot-race for boys, and Antipater of Miletus, son of Cleinopater, conqueror of the boy boxers. Men of Syracuse, who were bringing a sacrifice from Dionysius to Olympia, tried to bribe the father of Antipater to have his son proclaimed as a Syracusan. But Antipater, thinking naught of the tyrant's gifts, proclaimed himself a Milesian and wrote upon his statue that he was of Milesian descent and the first Ionian to dedicate his statue at Olympia.

The artist who made this statue was Polycleitus, while that of Timosthenes was made by Eutychides of Sicyon, a pupil of Lysippus."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 2, sections 6-7.

Pausanias does not tell us which of the tyrants of Syracuse named Dionysios (Διονύσιος) he is referring to. Dionysius I (or Dionysius the Elder, circa 432-367 BC) was tyrant 405-367 BC. His son Dionysius II (or Dionysius the Younger, circa 397-343 BC) ruled 367-357 BC and again 346-344 BC.

Also at Olympia:

"The statue of Cyniscus, the boy boxer from Mantinea, was made by Polycleitus."

Book 6, chapter 4, section 11.

"Pythocles, a pentathlete of Elis, was made by Polycleitus."

6, chapter 7, section 10.

"Xenocles of Maenalus, who overthrew the boys at wrestling... that of Xenocles is by Polycleitus."

Book 6, chapter 9, section 10.

"There are statues of Thersilochus of Corcyra and of Aristion of Epidaurus, the son of Theophiles, made by Polycleitus the Argive; Aristion won a crown for the men's boxing, Thersilochus for the boys'.

Bycelus, the first Sicyonian to win the boys' boxing-match, had his statue made by Canachus of Sicyon, a pupil of the Argive Polycleitus."

Book 6, chapter 13, sections 6-7.

The cult staue of a temple of Zeus Philios (Ζευς Φιλιος, Zeus the Friendly) for the god's temple in the sanctuary of the Great Goddesses (Demeter and Persephone) in the agora of Megalopolis, Arcadia.

"Within the precinct is a temple of Zeus Friendly. Polycleitus of Argos made the image; it is like Dionysus in having buskins as footwear and in holding a beaker in one hand and a thyrsus in the other, but an eagle sitting on the thyrsus does not fit in with the received accounts of Dionysus."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 8, chapter 31, section 4.
 
Polykleitos the Younger

Πολύκλειτος

Late 5th - early 4th century BC, or later

Perhaps from Argos, northeastern Peloponnese

Several ancient authors, particularly Pliny the Elder and Pausanias, mentioned "Polykleitos", "Polykleitos of Sikyon" and "Polykleitos of Argos". It is thought that there were two or more sculptors of this name working during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. The most famous of these is considered to have been the earliest, who has been named "Polykleitos the Elder" (see above) by modern scholars. Many works mentioned are considered to have been made later by an artist dubbed "Polykleitos the Younger", perhaps the son or grandson of the former. These later works may include the statues of athletes at Olympia mentioned by Pausanias.

It has also been suggested that this "Polykleitos the Younger" may have been the architect mentioned by Pausanias as the designer of the tholos and the great theatre at Epidauros, built around 340-320 BC (see Polykleitos under Architects).

Pausanias made a distinction between the Polykleitos of Argos (probably "Polykleitos the Elder") who made the statue of Hera at the Argive Heraion (see Polykleitos the Elder), and a Polycleitus of Argos who was a pupil of Naukydes (probably Naukydes of Argos, late 5th - early 4th century BC). He also mentioned a Polykleitos as a brother of Naukydes, son of Mothonos (see Polykleitos, son of Mothonos). It is possible that one of these was the "Polykleitos the Younger" responsible for the later works including the buildings at Epidauros, and equally possible that they were the same person.
  For details of works by Polykleitos mentioned by Pliny the Elder and Pausanias, see Polykleitos the Elder.  
Polykleitos, son of Mothonos

Πολύκλειτος

Late 5th - early 4th century BC

From Argos, northeastern Peloponnese

Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 22, section 7) mentioned a sculptor named Polykleitos as a brother of Naukydes (probably Naukydes of Argos), son of Mothonos (Μόθωνος).

Elsewhere Pausanias named a "Polykleitos of Argos" as a pupil of Naukydes (Book 6, chapter 6, section 2), distinguishing him from the sculptor of the same name, probably Polykleitos the Elder, who made the statue of Hera at the Argive Heraion. It has been suggested that this pupil may have been the son of Polykleitos the Elder.

It is possible that one of these was the artist named "Polykleitos the Younger" by modern scholars, and equally possible that they were the same person.
  Bronze statues of Hekate by Polykleitos, son of Mothonos, and Naukydes in the temple of Hekate, in Argos:

"Over against the sanctuary of Eilethyia is a temple of Hecate, and the image is a work of Scopas. This one is of stone, while the bronze images opposite, also of Hecate, were made respectively by Polycleitus and his brother Naucydes, son of Mothon."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 22, section 7.

A statue of a boy wrestler by Polykleitos of Argos, a pupil of Naukydes, at Olympia:

"Polycleitus of Argos, not the artist who made the image of Hera, but a pupil of Naucydes, made the statue of a boy wrestler, Agenor of Thebes. The statue was dedicated by the Phocian Commonwealth, for Theopompus, the father of Agenor, was a state friend [proxenos] of their nation."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 6, section 2.
 
Polykles

Πολυκλής

Perhaps two - or more - separate sculptors working in bronze between the 4th and 2nd centuries BC.

The name Polykles as a sculptor is mentioned by a number of ancient authors, although it is unclear whether the references are to one or more artists, or when and where he or they lived and worked. Some scholars believe there may have been several sculptors named Polykles, perhaps from the same family, over several generations

According to Pliny the Elder, a sculptor named Polykles was working in bronze in the 102nd Olympiad (370 BC), as a contemporary of Kephisodotos the Elder, Leochares and Hypatodorus (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19).

In the same chapter Pliny also mentioned a sculptor named Polykles among a list of "far inferior" artists during a revival of bronze sculpture in the 156th Olympiad (155 BC). In the list the name appears: "Antaeus, Callistratus, Polycles, Athenaeus, Callixenus, Pythocles, Pythias, and Timocles." It is thought that "Athenaeus" as a name may be an error, and could be an adjective for Polykles, as Polykles of Athens (Πολυκλῆς Ἀθηναῖος).

A painter named Polykles was mentioned by Vitruvius, as an example of talented but unfortunate artists who failed to achieve fame:

"Then there were painters like Aristomenes of Thasos, Polycles and Andron of Ephesus, Theo of Magnesia, and others who were not deficient in diligence or enthusiasm for their art or in dexterity, but whose narrow means or ill-luck, or the higher position of their rivals in the struggle for honour, stood in the way of their attaining distinction."

Vitruvius, The Ten Books on Architecture, Book 3, introduction, section 2. At Perseus Digital Library.
  Pliny the Elder mentioned that "Polycles made a splendid statue of Hermaphroditus;" (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19). This has led modern scholars to attempt to identify one of the surviving ancient statues of Hermaphroditus as a copy of Polykles' original bronze, the main candidates being the Capitoline type, depicting the deity holding the infant Eros, and the erotic Sleeping Hermaphrodite type.

Pliny also reported that statues of Juno and Jupiter by Dionysius (perhaps Dionysios of Argos) and Polykles stood in the two adjacent temples of these deities in the Porticus Octaviae in Rome (Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4).

"In the Temple of Juno, within the Porticos of Octavia, there is a figure of that goddess, executed by Dionysius, and another by Polycles, as also other statues by Praxiteles. This Polycles, too, in conjunction with Dionysius, the son of Timarchides, made the statue of Jupiter, which is to be seen in the adjoining temple."

Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4.

It has been suggested that this is a reference to the later Polykles (155 BC), and even that Dionysios may have been his brother. According to this hypothesis, the two Greek sculptors were working in Rome during the mid 2nd century BC when the temples were built.

However, Pliny did not say when or where the statues were made or that these artists had made them for the temples. They may well have been brought to Rome as booty from Greece. He also mentioned works in the Porticus Octaviae by several other Greek artists, including Pheidias, Praxiteles, Kephisodotos, Timarchides and Heliodoros. A large number of artworks were looted from Greece by Quintus Caecilius Metellus (circa 210-115 BC), who financed the building of the portico (originally known as the Portico of Metellus) and temples, and other Romans after him.

The Roman historian Marcus Velleius Paterculus (circa 19 BC - circa 31 AD) reported that Metellus had taken a bronze equestrian statue group from Dion in Macedonia, said to have been made by Lysippos for Alexander the Great (The Roman History, Book I, Chapter 11, sections 1-7). See the Alexander the Great page,

There are thought to have been many more artworks exhibited in the portico than those mentioned by Pliny, particularly after several generations of looting by the time the precinct was restored 27-23 BC by Emperor Augustus, who renamed it Porticus Octaviae after his sister Octavia Minor.
 
 
Pausanias mentioned a Polykles, a "sculptor of the Attic school" and perhaps therefore an Athenian, as the maker of a statue in Olympia of an Olympic winner in the pankration (παγκράτιον), a no-holds-barred mixture of boxing and wrestling.

"Polycles, another sculptor of the Attic school, a pupil of Stadieus the Athenian, has made the statue of an Ephesian boy pancratiast, Amyntas the son of Hellanicus."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 4, section 5.

A little later, still at Olympia, Pausanias reported on a statue of the boxing champion Agesarchus of Triteia, the son of Haemostratus, by "the sons of Polycles".

"The statue of Agesarchus is the work of the sons of Polycles, of whom we shall give some account later on."

Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 12, section 9.

This promise he kept, but the account, right at the end of his work, is brief and provides no further information concerning the identities of this Polykles and his sons, or in which period they worked. The sons made a cult staute of Athena Kranaia (Αθηνά Κραναία) for her sanctuary outside Elateia in Phocis, central Greece. The goddess was armed for battle and on her shield was a relief of an Amazonomachy (battle between Greeks and Amazons), as on the shield of the statue of Athena Parthenos by Pheidias in the Parthenon in Athens. If Pausanias was correct in writing that this was a copy of the work in Athens, it would have been made after around 438 BC.

"This image too was made by the sons of Polycles. It is armed as for battle, and on the shield is wrought in relief a copy of what at Athens is wrought on the shield of her whom the Athenians call the Virgin."

Description of Greece, Book 10, chapter 34, section 8.

From Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero, 106-43 BC) we learn that a statue of Hercules (Herakles) by Polykles stood near the Temple of Ops on the Capitoline Hill in Rome. In a letter written in Laodicea in February 50 BC to his close friend Titus Pomponius Atticus (circa 110-32 BC), he bemoaned his fellow Romans' ignorance of history and the mis-labelling of statues in the capital.

"As to the statue of Africanus (what a medley of topics! but that was the delightful feature of your letter, to my mind), do you really mean that Metellus Scipio does not know his great-grandfather was never censor? Certainly the statue which has lately been placed on high near the temple of Ops has only the inscription COS [Consul]. But the statue near the Hercules of Polycles bears the inscription CENS [Censor]: and the pose, the dress, the ring and the likeness prove that it is a statue of the same person.

As a matter of fact, when among the crowd of gilded knights placed by Metellus on the Capitol, I noticed a likeness of Africanus with the name Serapio on the pedestal, I thought it was a workman's error, but now I see it is Metellus' mistake. What gross ignorance of history!"

Eric Otto Winstedt (translator), Cicero, Letters to Atticus, Volume I (of 3), Book VI, 1, pages 432-435 (in Latin and English). William Heinemann, London; G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1919. At the Internet Archive.

A statue of the Athenian statesman Alcibiades (Ἀλκιβιάδης, son of Kleinias, circa 450-404 BC) by Polykles is mentioned in a speech erroneously attributed to the Greek orator Dio Chrysostom (Δίων Χρυσόστομος, circa 40-120 AD), perhaps by the 2nd century AD Sophist Favorinus (circa 80-160 AD, Herodes Atticus was a pupil and his heir). This author also complained about the mis-labelling of statues as well as the sad fate of several well-known Greek sculptures during the Roman period. As in Cicero's scathing remarks, there is more than a hint of Schadenfreude in his tirade:

"However, the statues of other men still stand and are known, though they wear the label of others, and what is going on is like an antispast in poetry, and, as one might say, the authors give counter information – Greek character, but Roman fortune. I have seen even Alcibiades, the handsome son of Cleinias – I know not where, but I saw him in a commanding site in Greece – wearing the label Chalcopogon, and also another likeness of him with both arms lopped off, a likeness said to have been the work of Polycles – ye gods, a fearsome spectacle, Alcibiades a cripple!

And I know that Harmodius and Aristogeiton have served as slaves in Persia, and that fifteen hundred statues of Demetrius of Phalerum have all been pulled down by the Athenians on one and the same day. Aye, they have even dared to empty chamber-pots on King Philip. Yes, the Athenians poured urine on his statue – but he poured on their city blood and ashes and dust. In fact it was enough to arouse righteous indignation that they should class the same man now among the gods and now not even among human beings."

Dio Chrysostom, Discourses, No. 37: The Corinthian Oration, chapter 40. At LacusCurtius.

Chalcopogon (Χαλκοπώγων, Bronze-Beard) is the Greek translation of the Latin Ahenobarbus, and thought to refer to a nickname of Emperor Nero.
 
Polymedes of Argos

Πολυμεδες Αργειος

6th century BC

Argos, northeastern Peloponnese
  The base of one of the twin marble kouroi statues, excavated at Delphi and dated to around 580 BC, is inscribed [ΠΟΛΥ]ΜΕΔΕΣ ΕΠΟΙΗΣΕΗ ΑΡΓΕΙΟΣ ([Poly]medes the Argive made me). The statues were originally identified as the brothers Kleobis and Biton of Argos. Herodotus related the legend of the brothers and wrote that "the Argives made and dedicated at Delphi statues of them as being the best of men". (Histories, Book 1, chapter 31)

However, this identification has been questioned, and according to one theory the statues may depict the Dioskouroi.
 
Praxias and Androsthenes

Πραξίας, Ἀνδροσθένης

4th century BC

According to Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 10, chapter 19, section 4), both were Athenians: Praxias was a pupil of Kalamis, and Androsthenes a pupil of Eucadmus.
  Pausanias wrote that Praxias and Androsthenes sculpted the pediments of the Late Classical Temple of Apollo at Delphi, completed around 330 BC. The reliefs on the east pediment (above the entrance) depicted Artemis, Leto (mother of Artemis and Apollo), Apollo, Muses and a setting Sun (Helios); the west pediment reliefs depicted Dionysus with the Thyiads. Praxias died during the twenty-year construction of the temple, and his work was completed by Androsthenes.

"The carvings in the pediments are: Artemis, Leto, Apollo, Muses, a setting Sun, and Dionysus together with the Thyiad women. The first of them are the work of Praxias, an Athenian and a pupil of Calamis, but the temple took some time to build, during which Praxias died. So the rest of the ornament in the pediments was carved by Androsthenes, like Praxias an Athenian by birth, but a pupil of Eucadmus. There are arms of gold on the architraves; the Athenians dedicated the shields from spoils taken at the battle of Marathon, and the Aetolians the arms, supposed to be Gallic, behind and on the left. Their shape is very like that of Persian wicker shields."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 10, chapter 19, section 4.

The sculptures of the east pediment have not been discovered, and may have been taken to Rome. Fragments of the west pediment reliefs, depicting Dionysus with the Thyiads, are in the Delphi Archaeological Museum, Greece.
 
Praxiteles

Πραξιτέλης (he who finishes his works)

4th century BC

From Athens

He was the son of the sculptor Kephisodotos the Elder, and father of Kephisodotos the Younger and Timarchos.
  Praxiteles made several statues of deities, including Leto, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hermes and satyrs, working in Parian marble. His figures were usually nude and depicted as young and graceful. Some of his works were coloured by the painter Nikias.

He made the cult statues of Demeter, Persephone and Iacchus (Iakchos) for the Temple of Demeter in Athens. "An inscription in Attic letters on the wall declares that they are works of Praxiteles" (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 2, section 4).

 
Surviving Hellenistic and Roman period copies of Praxiteles' works include: Hermes with the infant Dionysus, made for the temple of Hera at Olympia, circa 340 BC (Archaeological Museum of Olympia); Apollo Sauroktonos (Apollo the Lizard Slayer, at the Louvre, Vatican Museums, and National Museums Liverpool); Aphrodite of Knidos (Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums); Apollo Lykeios (Lycian Apollo), the original of which was displayed in the Athenian Lykeion (Lyceum gymnasium), where Aristotle established his Peripatetic school of philosophy.

According to Vitruvius, Praxiteles made sculptures for the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, around 350 BC, with Bryaxis, Leochares, Skopas and perhaps Timotheos (Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 7, Introduction, section 13). However, although Pliny the Elder described many of his works, he does not mention him as one of the sculptors who worked on the Mausoleum (Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4). See Bryaxis.

Strabo, citing Artemidorus of Ephesus (Greek geographer, writing around 100 BC), wrote that Praxiteles made most of the sculptural decoration for the altar of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus:

"After the completion of the temple, he [Artemidorus] says that the multitude of other sacred offerings were purchased by the Ephesians, at the value set on them by artificers, and that the altar was almost entirely full of the works of Praxiteles."

Strabo, Geography, Book 14, chapter 1, section 23.

Other artists said to have worked on the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus:
Chersiphron,   Deinokrates,   Paeonios of Ephesus,   Skopas.

A marble head, thought to be from the cult statue of Artemis Brauronia made by Praxiteles around 330 BC for the sanctuary of the goddess on the Athens Acropolis, is in the Acropolis Museum. Inv. No. Acr. 1352.

Praxiteles is credited with creating a statue of Dionysus, around 325-300 BC, known from Roman period copies of the "Dionysos-Sardanapalos" type.

A 4th century BC base for statues of Kleiokrateia and her husband Spoudias, found in the Athens Agora, is inscribed with the signature of Praxiteles and a dedication to the goddesses Demeter and Kore (Persephone). The statues are thought to have orginally stood in the City Eleusinion, the sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone south of the Agora. Agora Museum, Athens. Inv. No. I 4165.

Statues of the "Small Herculaneum Woman" type, named after several examples found at Herculaneum, are thought to be copies of an original made in the workshop of Praxiteles. Another example, from Derveni (ancient Lete, Macedonia), is in the Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum.
 
Pyrrhos of Athens

Πύρρος (Pyrros); Latin, Pyrrhus

5th century BC

Athens
  Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19) mentions bronze statues of Hygieia and Minerva (Athena) by Pyrrhos.

A semicircular marble statue base, found between the southeast corner of the Propylaia and the Sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia on the Athens Acropolis in 1839 and dated around 433 BC, bears the inscription:

Ἀθεναῖοι τε͂ι Ἀθεναίαι τε͂ι Ὑγιείαι.
Πύρρος ἐποίησεν Ἀθεναῖος.

The Athenians to Athena Hygieia.
Pyrrhos the Athenian made it.

Inscription IG I(3) 506.
In situ, Acropolis, Athens. Inv. No. ΜΑ 13259.

The base abutted an outer column of the east porch of the Propylaia and faced an altar, perhaps that of Athena Hygieia herself. It supported a bronze statue of Athena Hygieia (Athena of Health, see Athens Acropolis gallery page 10).

It is thought that this may have been the statue mentioned by Plutarch (Parallel lives, Pericles, chapter 13, sections 7-8) as having been set up by Pericles after a worker fell from the roof of the Propylaia during its construction, and was cured after Athena appeared to Pericles in a dream and gave him the recipe for a herbal remedy. Pausanias noted a statue of Hygieia and one of Athena Hygieia near the entrance to the Acropolis (Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 23, section 4).

A number of similar Roman period marble sculptures of the Athena Hope-Albani/Farnese type are believed to be copies of this statue. The best known examples of these are:

The "Athena Farnese". Found in 1743 in Rome. Height 224 cm. National Archaeological Museum, Naples. Inv. No. 6024. Albani Collection.

The "Athena Hope". Found in 1797 in Ostia, together with a statue of Hygieia. Height 200 cm. Private collection, Deepdene House, near Dorking, Surrey. From the Hope Collection.

See: Michael E. Habicht, Athena Hope und Athena Albani-Farnese. Zwei Schwestern-Statuen? (2002). At academia.edu.
 
Pythagoras of Rhegion

Πυθαγόρας (Pythagoras of Rhegium)

5th century BC

From Rhegion (Ῥήγιον; Latin, Rhegium), southwest Italy

He was a pupil of Klearchos of Rhegion and a contemporary of Myron, Polykleitos and Skopas.

Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19) mentioned two sculptors named Pythagoras: Pythagoras of Rhegion, working during the 90th Olympiad, and Pythagoras of Samos. Some scholars have suggested that they were the same person, and that he may have been one of the exiled Samians who moved to Zankle in the early 5th century BC, during the rule of the tyrant Anaxilas in Rhegion. (Herodotus also lived on Samos and may have emigrated to Italy.)

Diogenes Laertius mentioned a sculptor named Pythagoras in his life of the mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras of Samos.

Pausanias (Book 9, Chapter 35, section 7) mentioned a painter named Pythagoras from Paros who painted the Graces.
  Pythagoras of Rhegion appears to have specialized in portraits of victorious athletes.

"Pythagoras of Rhegium, in Italy, excelled him (Myron) in the figure of the Pancratiast which is now at Delphi, and in which he also surpassed Leontiscus.

Pythagoras also executed the statue of Astylos, the runner, which is exhibited at Olympia; that of a Libyan boy holding a tablet, also in the same place; and a nude male figure holding fruit.

There is at Syracuse a figure of a lame man by him: persons, when looking at it, seem to feel the very pain of his wound.

He also made an Apollo, with the serpent [Python] pierced by his arrows; and a Player on the Lyre, known as the Dicaeus [δικαιὸς, just or trustworthy], from the fact that, when Thebes was taken by Alexander the Great, a fugitive successfully concealed in its bosom a sum of gold.

He was the first artist who gave expression to the sinews and the veins, and paid more attention to the hair."

"Sostratus, it is said, was the pupil of Pythagoras of Rhegium, and his sister's son."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.
 
 
Pausanias mentioned a statue of Leontiscus, a wrestler from Sicily, by Pythagoras of Rhegion:

"The statue was made by Pythagoras of Rhegium, an excellent sculptor if ever there was one. They say that he studied under Clearchus, who was likewise a native of Rhegium, and a pupil of Eucheirus. Eucheirus, it is said, was a Corinthian, and attended the school of Syadras and Chartas, men of Sparta."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 4, section 4.

"The statue of the Mantinean, Protolaus the son of Dialces, who won the boxing-match for boys, was made by Pythagoras of Rhegium."

Pausanias, Book 6, chapter 6, section 1.

"Euthymus won the crown for boxing. His statue is the handiwork of Pythagoras, and is very well worth seeing."

Pausanias, Book 6, chapter 6, section 6.

The base of this statue, found at Olympia, has an inscribed signature by "Pythagoras the Samian".

"A man from Stymphalus, by name Dromeus (Runner), proved true to it in the long race, for he won two victories at Olympia, two at Pytho, three at the Isthmus and five at Nemea. He is said to have also conceived the idea of a flesh diet; up to this time athletes had fed on cheese from the basket. The statue of this athlete is by Pythagoras; the one next to it, representing Pythocles, a pentathlete of Elis, was made by Polycleitus."

Pausanias, Book 6, chapter 7, section 10.

"By the side of Bycelus stands the statue of a man-at-arms, Mnaseas of Cyrene, surnamed the Libyan; Pythagoras of Rhegium made the statue."

Pausanias, Book 6, chapter 13, section 7.

"There is also a bronze statue of Cratisthenes of Cyrene, and on the chariot stand Victory and Cratisthenes himself. It is thus plain that his victory was in the chariot race. The story goes that Cratisthenes was the son of Mnaseas the runner, surnamed the Libyan by the Greeks. His offerings at Olympia are the work of Pythagoras of Rhegium."

Pausanias, Book 6, chapter 18, section 1.
 
Pythagoras of Samos

Πυθαγόρας

Sculptor and painter, 5th century BC

From Samos. Perhaps lived and worked in Italy or Sicily.

Possibly the same person as Pythagoras of Rhegion.
  "There was also another Pythagoras, a Samian, who was originally a painter, seven of whose nude figures, in the Temple of Fortune of the passing day, and one of an aged man, are very much admired. He is said to have resembled the last-mentioned artist [Pythagoras of Rhegion] so much in his features, that they could not be distinguished."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

"Euthymus won the crown for boxing. His statue is the handiwork of Pythagoras, and is very well worth seeing."

Pausanias, Book 6, chapter 6, section 6.

The base of this statue, found at Olympia, has an inscribed signature by "Pythagoras the Samian".
 
Pythokritos of Rhodes

(or Pythokritos of Lindos) Πυθόκριτος Ῥόδιος

Late 3rd - early 2nd century BC

From Lindos, Rhodes

Son of Timocharios (Τιμοχάριος) of Rhodes
  Pythokritos' signature is inscribed on a high relief of a trireme in the rock of the Acropolis of Lindos, showing General Hagesander at the bow.

It is thought that he may have made the marble statue known as the "Winged Victory of Samothrace" (Νίκη της Σαμοθράκης, Niki tis Samothrakis), circa 220-185 BC, for the Sanctuary of the Great Gods, Samothraki, Thrace, Greece. An inscription of a signature of a Rhodian sculptor (name missing), found near the Nike, has letter-forms similar to those of the ship at Lindos.

— —ς Ῥόδιος

Inscription IG XII,8 239, dated to the 2nd century AD.

The statue is now in the Louvre, and there are casts in the archaeological museums of Samothraki and Istanbul.

Louvre, Paris. Inv. No. MA 2369.
 
 
Sculptors R
Rhoikos of Samos

Ῥοῖκος (latin, Rhoecus)

6th century BC

Architect and sculptor from Samos.

He was the son of Philaios or Phileas. His sons Theodoros and Telecles were also sculptors in bronze.
  Rhoikos and Theodoros of Samos were credited with learning the hollow-casting of bronze for large sculptures from the Egyptians (Pliny, Natural history, Book 35, chapter 43; Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 9, Chapter 41, section 1).

His name has been found on a fragment of a vase which he dedicated to Aphrodite at Naukratis, a Greek trading post in northern Egypt.

The temple of Apollo at Naukratis, built around 550 BC, has signs of Samian influence. It has been suggested that it was designed by Rhoikos, and that he may have learned Egyptian techniques while working there.

Herodotus (Histories, Book 3, chapter 60) wrote that Rhoikos built the Temple of Hera at Samos, probably the second temple built 580-560 BC, destroyed by fire circa 530 BC.

He made a marble statue of Night for the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.

His sons Theodoros and Telecles made a statue of Pythian Apollo for the Samians.
 
A marble relief of the head of a discobolos by the Master of the Rampin Horseman at My Favourite Planet

A marble relief of the head of a discobolos (or discophoros),
a youth shouldering a discus. From the top of a grave stele.

Archaic period, around 550 BC. Attributed to the "Master of the Rampin Horseman".
Found near the Dipylon Gate in the Kerameikos, Athens. Pentelic marble. Height 34 cm.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 38.
 
Sculptors S
Skopas

Σκόπας (Latin, Scopas)

Sculptor and architect, circa 395-350 BC.

He was born on the island of Paros which he left at an early age.

He was a contemporary of Bryaxis, Leochares, Praxiteles and Timotheos.

His father may have been the sculptor Aristandros of Paros (Αρίστανδρος, active around 405 BC), mentioned by Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 3, chapter 18, section 8; see quote under Polykleitos the Elder).

Since some of the works attributed to Skopas are thought to have been made later than the estimated period of his career (particularly the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, see below), it is thought that there were at least two sculptors of this name, and that two (conjecturally named Skopas I and Skopas II) belonged to a family of Parian artists active over several generations.

Three statue bases found on Delos are inscribed with the signature of "Aristandros, son of Skopas, of Paros" as restorer (Ἀρίστανδρος Σκόπα Πάριος ἐπεσκεύασεν). Aristandros may have restored the statues, two of which were made and signed in the late 1st century BC by Agasias, son of Menophilos, of Ephesus (Ἀγασίας Μηνοφίλου Ἐφέσιος), following the sack of Delos by Mithridates VI in 88 BC. Inscriptions:
ID 1697; ID 1710 (CIG 2285b); ID 2494.
  Pliny the Elder mentioned marble statues of Dionysus and Athena by Skopas at Knidos (Κνίδος) in Caria:

"There are also at Cnidos [Knidos, Caria] some other statues in marble, the productions of illustrious artists: a Father Liber [Dionysus] by Bryaxis, another by Scopas, and a Minerva [Athena] by the same hand."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

Later in the same chapter, Pliny listed several other works by Skopas, many of which had been taken to Rome:

"Scopas rivals these artists [Praxiteles, Kephisodotos and others] in fame: there are by him, a Venus [Aphrodite] and a Pothos [Desire], statues which are venerated at Samothrace with the most august ceremonials.

He was also the sculptor of the Palatine Apollo; a Vesta seated, in the Gardens of Servilius [in Rome], and represented with two Bends around her, a work that has been highly praised; two similar Bends, to be seen upon the buildings of Asinius Pollio; and some figures of Canephori [figures of virgins, carrying on their heads baskets filled with objects consecrated to Athena, similar to caryatids] in the same place.

But the most highly esteemed of all his works, are those in the temple erected by Cneius Domitius, in the Flaminian Circus; a figure of Neptune [Poseidon] himself, a Thetis and Achilles, Nereids seated upon dolphins, cetaceous fishes, and sea-horses, Tritons, the train of Phorcus, whales, and numerous other sea-monsters, all by the same hand; an admirable piece of workmanship, even if it had taken a whole life to complete it.

In addition to the works by him already mentioned, and others of the existence of which we are ignorant, there is still to be seen a colossal Mars [Ares] of his, seated, in the temple erected by Brutus Callaecus, also in the Flaminian Circus; as also, a naked Venus [Aphrodite], of anterior date to that by Praxiteles, and a production that would be quite sufficient to establish the renown of any other place.
 
At Rome, it is true, it is quite lost sight of amid such a vast multitude of similar works of art: and then besides, the inattention to these matters that is induced by such vast numbers of duties and so many items of business, quite precludes the generality of persons from devoting their thoughts to the subject. For, in fact, the admiration that is due to this art, not only demands an abundance of leisure, but requires that profound silence should reign upon the spot.

Hence it is, that the artist is now forgotten, who executed the statue of Venus that was dedicated by the Emperor Vespasianus in his Temple of Peace, a work well worthy of the high repute of ancient times.

With reference, too, to the Dying Children of Niobe, in the Temple of the Sosian Apollo, there is an equal degree of uncertainty, whether it is the work of Scopas or of Praxiteles. So, too, as to the Father Janus, a work that was brought from Egypt and dedicated in his Temple by Augustus, it is a question by which of these two artists it was made: at the present day, however, it is quite hidden from us by the quantity of gold that covers it.

The same question, too, arises with reference to the Cupid brandishing a Thunderbolt, now to be seen in the Curia of Octavia: the only thing, in fact, that is affirmed with any degree of certainty respecting it, is, that it is a likeness of Alcibiades, who was the handsomest man of his day."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

Apart from the statues at Knidos and Samothraki, the other works mentioned (except the "Father Janus" from Egypt) were evidently looted by the Romans from Greece. The temple erected by Brutus Callaecus in the Flaminian Circus was the temple of Mars, said to have been designed by the Cypriot architect Hermodoros of Salamis.

The "Dying Children of Niobe" may have been the marble statue group known as the Dying Children of Niobe, surviving parts of which are now in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. It has been suggested that they may be the works of Paionios of Mende, Praxiteles or Skopas, although, according to another theory, they may be Roman period copies, perhaps from the reign of Nero (54-68 AD).

It is doubted that the statue of "Father Janus" (if that is who the figure originally represented) was made by either Skopas or Praxiteles, since Janus was essentially an Italian deity.

Pliny (Natural history, Book 36, chapter 21) also wrote that Skopas sculpted one of the 36 decorated marble columns of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, another of the Seven Wonders of the World. However, he added that "Chersiphron was the architect who presided over the work". Chersiphron is thought to have been the architect of the first great temple at Ephesus, built in the 6th century BC, and burnt down in 356 BC. Construction the second temple began shortly after, and it was completed in the early 3rd century BC. One of the columns from the second temple, now in the British Museum, London (Inv. No. GR 1872.8-3.9; Sculpture 1206), has been dated to around 325-300 BC (see the Hermes page).

Around 350 BC Skopas worked on the sculptures of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus with Bryaxis, Leochares, and perhaps Timotheos and Praxiteles. According to Pliny the Elder, he worked on the east side of the monument. (Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 7, Introduction, section 13; Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4; see Bryaxis)

Pausanias wrote that Skopas made statues of Asklepios as a beardless youth and Hygieia for the temple of Asklepios at Gortys in Arcadia (Description of Greece, Book 8, chapter 28, section 1), and that he was the architect of the temple of Athena Alea in Tegea, Arcadia, built around 345-335 BC to replace the earlier temple destroyed by fire in 395/394 BC.

"The modern temple is far superior to all other temples in the Peloponnese on many grounds, especially for its size. Its first row of pillars is Doric, and the next to it Corinthian; also, outside the temple, stand pillars of the Ionic order. I discovered that its architect was Scopas the Parian, who made images in many places of ancient Greece, and some besides in Ionia and Caria."

The relief on the front (east) pediment of the temple depicted the Kalydonian Boar hunt, and the rear pediment relief depicted Telephos fighting Achilles. Pausanias also mentioned that the cult statue of Athena was flanked by statues of Hygieia and Asklepios made by Skopas in Pentelic marble (Book 8, chapter 45, section 4 - chapter 47, section 3). See also Endoios.

The design of the temple has been more recently described as having a "traditional, rather conservative Doric temple exterior with an innovative interior layout" and "distinctly Peloponnesian" features. (Anna Vasiliki Karapanagiotou, Archaeological Museum of Tegea, pages 69-70. Athens, 2017)

A marble head of a woman, probably Hygieia, excavated 1900-1901 at Tegea and dated around 350-325 BC, is thought to be an original work of Skopas. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 3602. A number of sculptural fragments from the Tegea temple are in the Athens museum and the Tegea Archaeological Museum.

Surviving Roman period sculpture, believed to be copies of works by Skopas include: a restored marble head of Meleager (Inv. No. GR 1906.1-17.1) and reliefs in the British Museum; the "Meleager Pio-Clementino", around 150 AD, a marble statue of Meleager with a dog and the head of the Kalydonian Boar, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums, Inv. No. 490; a marble statue of Meleager with a spear and a dog, Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Inv. No. Sk 215; the "Ludovisi Ares" in the Palazzo Altemps, Rome; several copies of Pothos (Desire), including one heavily restored as Apollo Kitharoidos in the Capitoline Museums, Rome.

The "Dresden Maenad", a marble statuette of a dancing maenad, 2nd half of the 1st century BC, may be a copy of a work by Skopas. Skulpturensammlung, Albertinum, Dresden. Inv. No. Hm 133.
 
Sokrates

Σωκράτης (Latin, Socrates)

Sokrates was identified by Pausanias and Diogenes Laertius with the Athenian philosopher of the same name, son of the sculptor Sophroniscus. Diogenes Laertius also wrote that artists had previously represented the Graces naked, but that Sokrates sculptured them with drapery.
  "No less esteemed, too, are the statues of the Graces, in the Propylaeum at Athens; the workmanship of Socrates the sculptor, a different person from the painter of that name, though identical with him in the opinion of some."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4. At Perseus Digital Library.

"Right at the very entrance to the Acropolis are a Hermes (called Hermes of the Gateway) and figures of Graces, which tradition says were sculptured by Socrates, the son of Sophroniscus, who the Pythia testified was the wisest of men, a title she refused to Anacharsis, although he desired it and came to Delphi to win it."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 22, section 8. At Perseus Digital Library.
 
Sthennis

Σθέννις

Mid - late 4th century BC

Pausanias named him "Sthennis of Olynthos". He is thought to have moved to Athens as a refugee at the time of the destruction of Olynthos, Halkidiki by Philip II of Macedonia in 348 BC (see History of Stageira part 6).

Pliny the Elder placed the height of his career during the 113th Olmpiad (328-325 BC), as a contemporary of Lysippos, Lysistratos, Silanion and other sculptors in bronze (Natural history, Book 34, chapter 19).
  Pausanias recorded two statues by "Sthennis of Olynthos" at Olympia depicting Pyttalus and Choerilus, victors from Elis in the boys' boxing contest (Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 16, section 8 and chapter 17, section 5).

"Sthennis made the statues of Ceres, Jupiter, and Minerva, which are now in the Temple of Concord [in Rome]; also figures of matrons weeping, adoring, and offering sacrifice."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 19.

He made a statue of Autolycus, the founder of Sinope. When Lucullus captured the city he took the statue to Rome.

He is also mentioned Plutarch, Strabo and Appian.

His signature has been found on a base for a group of five statues in Athens, made around 330 BC. Two statues are signed by Sthennis and two by Leochares.
 
Strongylion

Στρογγυλίων

Late 5th century BC

Athens
  Pausanias described Strongylion as "an excellent artist of oxen and horses" (Description of Greece, Book 9, chapter 30, section 1).

He made a bronze statue of the wooden horse of Troy for the Athens Acropolis, mentioned by Aristophanes in the Birds (v. 1128); a scholiast names Chairedemos as the dedicator. The inscribed base of the statue, dated to around 414 BC, was found near the sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia on the Acropolis in 1840. The inscription reads:

Χαιρέδημος Εὐαγγέλου ἐκ Κοίλης ἀνέθηκεν Στρογγυλίων ἐποίησεν

He also made a statue of of Artemis Soteira at Megara, a group of three Muses (Pausaias, 9, 30, 1), and an Amazon which was greatly admired by the emperor Nero.
 
Styppax

Στύππαξ

Mid 5th century BC

From Cyprus, working in Athens
  Styppax is known only from two mentions by Pliny the Elder of a bronze statue, apparently famous in his time, known as the "Entrail Roaster" (σπλαγχνόπτης, splanchnoptes, man cooking intestines), depicting a favourite slave of the Athenian general and statesman Pericles.

"Stypax of Cyprus acquired his celebrity by a single work, the statue of the Splanchnoptes, which represents a slave of the Olympian Pericles, roasting entrails and kindling the fire with his breath."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19, "An account of the most celebrated works in brass, and the artists, 366 in number". At Perseus Digital Library.

 
Pliny also related an anecdote in which this slave was badly injured by falling from the roof of a temple on the Athens Acropolis, probably the Parthenon, during its construction. Athena appeared to Pericles in a dream and gave him a presciption for a herbal remedy which cured the slave (Natural History, Book 22, chapter 20).

Plutarch reported a similar anecdote concerning an unnamed workman who fell from the roof of the Propylaia, but mentioned a bronze statue of Athena Hygieia set up by Pericles (see Pyhrros).

On the basis of these anecdotes and another mention by Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 23, section 4) of statues of Hygieia and Athena Hygieia near the entrance to the Acropolis, it is thought that the "Entrail Roaster" may have stood at the sanctuary of Athena Hygieia next to the Propylaia (see Athens Acropolis gallery page 10), among "less distinguished portraits" which he disdained to mention. However, since Pliny referred to the statue as being famous, it may have been removed to Italy before Pausanias' visit to Athens.

A fragmentary marble statue found in the Olympieon, Athens, is thought to be part of a Roman period copy of the splanchnoptes by Styppax. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 248.

The subject of the "Entrail Roaster" was also painted on Greek pottery, including an Attic red-figure stamnos attributed to Polygnotus, 450-430 BC, in the British Museum.
 
 
Sculptors T
Theodoros of Samos

Θεόδωρος ὁ Σάμιος

6th century BC

From Samos

Son of Rhoikos of Samos, and brother of the sculptor Telecles.
  Along with his father Rhoikos of Samos, Theodoros was credited with learning the hollow-casting of bronze for large sculptures from the Eqyptians.

Theodoros and his brother Telecles made a statue of Pythian Apollo for the Samians.
 
 
Thrasymedes of Paros

Θρασυμήδης ο Παριανός

Early 4th century BC

From Paros, worked at Epidaurus

Son of Arignotus (Pausanias, 2, 27, 2)
  Pausanias wrote that Thrasymedes made the chryselephantine (gold and ivory) statue of Asklepios enthroned for the Temple of Asklepios at the Asklepieion of Epidaurus (Επίδαυρος, Epidavros):

"The image of Asclepius is, in size, half as big as the Olympian Zeus at Athens, and is made of ivory and gold. An inscription tells us that the artist was Thrasymedes, a Parian, son of Arignotus. The god is sitting on a seat grasping a staff; the other hand he is holding above the head of the serpent; there is also a figure of a dog lying by his side. On the seat are wrought in relief the exploits of Argive heroes, that of Bellerophontes against the Chimaera, and Perseus, who has cut off the head of Medusa."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 27, section 2.

Athenagoras, writing in the mid 2nd century AD, claimed that the statue of Asklepios at Epidaurus was a work of Pheidias (Leg. pro Christ. 14, p. 61: ed. Dechair), a statement which appears to have no authority.

Some scholars, attempting to reconcile the testimonies of Pausanias and Athenagoras, thought that Thrasymedes must have been a pupil of Pheidias, and modelled the statue of Asklepios on Pheidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia. However, the temple and the statue are now known to be from the 4th century BC.

See:

Harold N. Fowler, The statue of Asklepios at Epidauros. The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, Volume 3, No. 1/2 (June 1887), pages 32-37. At jstor.
 
Timarchos

Τίμαρχος

4th - 3rd century BC

Athens
  Statue of Menander (Athenian playwright, circa 342-290 BC) at the Theatre of Dionysos, Athens, mentioned by Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book I, Chapter 21, section 1.

A pedestal, 291/290 BC, discovered in 1862 at the Theatre of Dionysos, bears an inscription with the name "Menandros", below which are the names "Kephisodotos the Younger and Timarchos, sons of Praxiteles".

The pedestal is displayed at the Theatre of Dionysos, with a modern composite cast made from fragments of Roman period copies (in Naples, Venice). More than 70 copies have survived.

With his brother Kephisodotos the Younger he also made a statue of Enyo which stood in the Athens Agora (Pausanias, 1, 8, 4).
 
Timotheos

Τιμόθεος

4th century BC

Born in Epidaurus, died in Epidaurus circa 340 BC
  Timotheos may have made sculptures for the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, around 350 BC, with Bryaxis, Leochares, Skopas and perhaps Praxiteles (Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 7, Introduction, section 13; Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4). See Bryaxis.

According to Vitruvius, either Leochares or Timotheos made a colossal acrolithic statue of Ares for the temple of Ares at Halicarnassus:

"At the top of the hill, in the centre, is the fane of Mars, containing a colossal acrolithic statue by the famous hand of Leochares. That is, some think that this statue is by Leochares, others by Timotheus."

Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 2, chapter 8, section 11.

"There is at Rome, by Timotheus, a Diana [Artemis], in the Temple of Apollo in the Palatium, the head of which has been replaced by Avianius Evander."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

He is credited with making a statue of Leda and Zeus as a swan, thought to be the model for Roman copies.
 
 
Sculptors Z
Zenodoros

Ζηνόδωρος (Latin, Zenodorus)

1st century AD, place of origin unknown.

Zenodoros was mentioned only by Pliny the Elder as a sculptor of colossal bronze statues and an engraver of silver vessels. He made the colossal bronze statue in Rome known as the "Colossus of Nero".

See also:
the Colossus of Rhodes by Chares of Lindos
  This section is currently being rewritten.

A longer article about Zenodoros
will be appearing on a separate page.
 
 

The Thinker, a Neolithic ceramic figurine from Karditsa, Thessaly at My Favourite Planet

"The Thinker", a solid ceramic
figurine of a seated man.

From the area of Karditsa, Thessaly,
central Greece. Final Neolithic period,
4500-3300 BC.

National Archaeological Museum,
Athens. Inv. No. 5894.
 
The head of a marble Cycladic statue from Amorgos at My Favourite Planet

The head of a marble Cycladic statue,
with painted eyes and four red vertical
striations on the left cheek.

Found on the island of Amorgos, Cyclades.
Early Cycladic II period (Keros-Syros
Culture), 2800-2300 BC. Parian marble.

National Archaeological Museum,
Athens. Inv. No. 3909.
 

The kouros statue from the grave of Kroisos at My Favourite Planet

A marble statue of a kouros
from a funerary monument.

Archaic period, around 530 BC. Found
in Anavyssos, Attica. Pentelic marble.

The epigram inscribed on the base of the
statue states that it stood on the grave
of Kroisos (Κροίσος) who died in war.

"Stop and mourn at the grave of dead
Kroisos, whom the raging Ares destroyed
when he fought among the defenders."

The statue was stolen and taken to
France, and returned to Greece in 1937.

National Archaeological Museum,
Athens. Inv. No. 3851.
   
 

A marble head of an Amazon in the Capitoline Museums, Rome at My Favourite Planet

A marble head of an Amazon.

One of several extant Roman period sculptures
thought to be copies of the statues of Amazons
said to have been made for the Temple of
Artemis at Ephesus around 440-430 BC, in
a competition between Cydon, Kresilas,
Pheidias, Phradmon (of Argos) and Polykleitos.

Greek marble. From the Horti Maecenatiani
(Gardens of Maecenas), Rome. Found in
1874 in the area of the Auditorium.

Palazzo dei Conservatori, Capitoline
Museums, Rome. Inv. No. MC 1091.
   
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Potters / vase painters

See note 2.
A     B     C     D     E     F     G     H
I     L     M     N     O     P     S
Potters and
vase painters
A  
 
Name / Biographical information   Works / References  
Amasis

Ἄμασις. Also referred to as the Amasis Painter

Potter and vase painter of the black-figure style in Athens, active around 560-525 BC.

He signed himself Amasis, the Hellenized form of the common ancient Egyptian name Ahmosis. It has thus been conjectured that he was born or had previously lived in Egypt, possibly from a Greek or mixed Greek-Egyptian family, perhaps living in Naucratis (a Greek trading post in the Nile Delta). However, Amasis may have been his tradename or nickname rather than the one he was given at birth. Although he was born too early to have been named after Pharoah Ahmosis II, who ruled 570-526 BC (mentioned by Herodotus, particularly Book 2, chapter 161 onwards), his signature appears only on later work, and he may have adopted the name later in his career.

He may have been a pupil of Neandros.

Along with Exekias and Lydos, he is considered one of the most important and influentual Attic black-figure artists, and like Lydos was a prolific craftsman who had a long career.

It is thought that he may have introduced the alabastron form to Attica.
  Amasis' signature as a painter is known from eight black-figure vases, all decorated by the same artist. As a potter his signature appears on two black-figure vases painted by Lydos, and a cup painted by a red-figure artist. Around 132 vases have been securely attributed to him, with a number of others considered uncertain. His works include a wide variety of vessels, particularly belly amphorae, but not kraters or hydriae.

A lekythos from Kerameikos, Athens, with a depiction of wrestlers (see photo below). Kerameikos Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 25829.

A black-figure neck amphora, made by Exekias as potter, circa 535 BC. Side A depicts Memnon, bearded and fully armed, flanked by two African attendants. Inscribed above, behind Memnon, έπ]οίησ(ε)ν (?); in front of Memnon, AMAΣIΣ (Αμασις), the signature of the Amasis Painter. On Side B Achilles killing the Amazon queen Penthesileia. Height 41.5 cm, width 30 cm, weight 3.6 kg. British Museum. Inv. No. GR 1849.5-18.10 (Vase B209).

An olpe, circa 540 BC, with a depiction of Herakles entering Olympus with Athena and Hermes, greeted by Poseidon (rather than Zeus). Signed Ἄμασις μέποίησεν (Amasis m'epoiesen, Amasis made me). Height 26.4 cm, diameter 13.5 cm. Louvre Museum, Paris. Inv. No. F 30.

A cup from Vulci. Side A, a fight scene between warriors and horseman between palmettes and other devices, a cock, a star and a bee. Side B, with Dionysus and Ariadne, flanked by a Maenad and a Satyr. Louvre. Inv. No. F 75.

A neck amphora from Vulci. On Side A depiction of Athena and Poseidon. On Side B Dionysus and two females (Maenads?). Signed Ἄμασις μέποίησεν on both sides. Shoulder, Sides A and B, battle scene. Height 33 cm. Cabinet des Médailles, Paris. Inv. No. 222.

 
An oinochoe (olpe) from Vulci, signed Ἄμασις μέποίησεν (Amasis mepoiesen, Amasis made me), with a depiction of Perseus decapitating Medusa, watched by Hermes. Height 26 cm. British Museum. Inv. No. 1849.6-20.5 (Vase B 471).

A lekythos from Vari, with women weaving. Height 17.2 cm. Metropolitan Museum, New York. Inv. No. 31.11.10.

A lekythos with a wedding procession. Height 17.1 cm. Metropolitan Museum, New York. Inv. No. 56.11.1.

A fragment of a black-figure amphora, around 540-530 BC, with a depiction of the lower part of a draped male with a spear or trident, and part of a leg with a greave. Signed Ἄμασις μέποίησεν. Metropolitan Museum, New York. Inv. No. 1985.11.2.

An alabastron from the Athens Agora, with a female winged deity, perhaps Nike, between youths. Height 9.2 cm. Agora Museum, Athens. Inv. No. P 12628.

A fragmentary neck amphora from Orvieto. On Side A Poseidon(?) and Athena. On Side B two warriors. Under each handle Dionysus, looking back. Signed Ἄμασις μέποίησεν on both sides. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Inv. No. 01.8026.

A neck amphora from Orvieto. On Side A Apollo and Herakles struggling for the Delphic Tripod, signed Ἄμασις μέποίησεν. On Side B Achilles receiving from Thetis the armour made by Hephaistos. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Inv. No. 01.8027.

A kylix, on one side with two Satyrs masturbating, and on the other a Siren with a body in the form of a large eye. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Inv. No. 10.651.

A fragmentary black-figure eye cup. Inside, a Gorgoneion. Between the eyes: Side A a bearded komast; Side B a woman (hetaera) holding a lyre. Signed Ἄμασις μέποίησεν on both sides. Vatican Museums, rome. Inv. No. 369a.+.

A cup from Vulci, with horses and grooms in the divine stables. Schimmel Collection, Kings Point.

A belly amphora with Menelaos recovering Helen. Private collection, UK.
 
Wrestlers by the Amasis Painter at My Favourite Planet

An Athenian black-figure lekythos with a depiction
of two athletes wrestling between draped men.
Their garments hang behind them.

From the Kerameikos (T 243/VII), Athens.
Attributed to Amasis, around 550-525 BC.

Kerameikos Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 25829.
Antimenes Painter

Black-figure vase painter in Athens, active around 530-510 BC.

His black-figure work is stylistically close to that of Psiax, who worked for the same workshop.
  He is named after a kalos inscription, "Antimenes kalos", on a hydria (ὑδρία, water-carrying vessel with three handles) in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden. Inv. No. PC 63.

An Attic black-figure neck amphora, around 520 BC, attributed to the Antimenes Painter: Side A, Dionysus mask between two large eyes; Side B, a similar mask of a satyr between two large eyes. Berlin State Museums (SMB). Inv. No. F 3997.
 
Aristonothos

Ἀριστόνοθος

Vase painter and/or potter of the Late Geometric style, perhaps from Euboea, active around the mid 7th century BC.

The earliest known potter and/or painter.
  "The Aristonothos Krater" is the only vase so far attributed to Aristonothos. The Late Geometric krater, found in the 19th century in a tomb at the Etruscan city Caere (today Cerveteri), has been dated variously to around 680-630 BC. One side is decorated with a depiction of Odysseus blinding Polyphemos, and is inscribed with the earliest signature by a Greek painter or potter Ἀριστόνοθος ἐποίσεν (Aristonothos epoiesen, Aristonothos made it), thought to be written in the Ionic script of Euboea, although readings of the inscription differ. It is not known whether the signature refers to the potter or painter, nor whether the krater was produced in Greece or Italy. The other side of the krater shows warriors on two ships in a sea battle. Height 36 cm, maximum diameter 40 cm. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Capitoline Museums, Rome. Inv. No. 172. From the Castellani Collection.  
Asteas (or Assteas)

Αστεας or Ασστεας

A prolific red-figure vase painter and workshop owner (or manager) in Poseidonia (Paestum), Campania, Magna Graecia (southern Italy), active around 350-320 BC.

Along with Python, considered the two leading painters in Paestum around 365-320 BC. During this period their workshop dominated Paestan vase painting. They signed some of their works, the only two vase painters in Magna Graecia to do so.
  Over 1000 vases have been attributed to the workshop of Asteas and Python, many of them by other artists. More than half of them of them are small vessels, mostly decorated with single figures, a female head, or animals and birds. Works by Asteas and Python are only easily distinguished on larger, more elaborate vases (hydriai and kraters) and signed works. Both painted mythological and theatrical scenes.

"The Asteas Krater" is a calyx krater signed ΑΣΣΤΕΑΣ, around 350-340 BC, found in Sant'Agata de' Goti, Campania. Side A has an inscribed scene from a Phlyax farce, depicting three men (Gynmilos, Kosios and Karion) robbing a miser (Karinos), with two female masks above. Side B depicts Dionysus and a satyr. Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. F 3044.
 
 
Potters and
vase painters
B
Berlin Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 505-460 BC.

Admired for his refined, elegant style, he is considered as one of the finest vase painters of the early 5th century BC, alongside the Kleophrades Painter. He is credited as the creator of over 300 works.

He began career in the workshop of the Pioneer Group (the Dikaios Painter, Euphronios, Euthymides, Hypsias, Phintias, Smikros and the Sosias Painter), which adopted the red-figure technique developed by earlier painters such as Andokides and Psiax.

He was the teacher of the Achilles Painter and Hermonax.
  None of the Berlin Painter's works are signed. He was named by John Beazley after a large lidded red-figure amphora (his name vase) in the Berlin State Museums (SMB). Inv. No. F 2160. Side A shows a satyr, Hermes and a fawn. Side B shows a satyr.

He began his career working in the Late Archaic style, and made a number of black-figure Panathenaic amphorae. He was one of the vase painters who developed the Classical Attic red-figure style.

An Attic red-figure pelike with a Dionysus followed by a satyr carrying a tripod, 480-470 BC, attributed to the Berlin Painter. National Archaeological Museum, Paestum, Campania, Italy.
 
Boreas Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 470-460 BC.
  Named the Boreas Painter by Sir John Beazley due to a number of vases attributed to him depicting Boreas (god of the North Wind). A number of other vase paintings, mostly on kraters, have been attributed to him on the basis of style. His style is close to that of the Florence Painter and the Painter of London E489.

An Attic red-figure column krater found in Akragas (Agrigento), Sicily, depicting a a god chasing a female, possibly Plouton (Hades) and Persephone, or Zeus and a maiden, has been attributed to the Boreas Painter. The other side shows a female figure with a torch. Around 470-460 BC. Antonino Salinas Regional Archaeological Museum, Palermo. Inv. No. V795.

Beazley Archive Database, Vase No. 206127
 
Brygos

Βρύγος

Potter, and perhaps painter, in Athens, active around 500-450 BC.

Thought to be from western Macedonia, based on the letter-forms of his signature.
  Brygos was named by Sir John Beazley after the signature Βρυγος εποιεσεν (Brygos epoiesen, Brygos made it) on a number of Attic red-figure vases.

His workshop produced high quality wares, mostly drinking cups, but also other types of vessels such as rhytons (drinking horns) in the shape of animal heads.

He employed a number of painters, including the Briseis Painter, the Foundry Painter and the Brygos Painter. Some scholars believe that Brygos and the Brygos Painter may have been the same person.
 
Brygos Painter

Red-figure vase painter, and perhaps potter, in Athens, active around 500-450 BC. Thought to have been particularly active around 480-470 BC.

Perhaps a pupil of Onesimos, with whom his works have been compared.

Thought to have worked in the workshop of the potter Brygos, he was named by Sir John Beazley after the signature Βρυγος εποιεσεν (Brygos epoiesen, Brygos made it) on a number of Attic red-figure vases with paintings attributed to the same artist. The signature is thought to be that of Brygos as potter, but some scholars believe that the potter and painter may have been the same person.
  The Brygos Painter is considered, along with Douris, Makron and Onesimos, one of the finest and most influential vase painters of the period. He was prolific, and over 200 vessels have been attributed to him, several signed by Brygos. Most of the surviving paintings are on kylikes (types B and C), but he also painted skyphoi, kantharoi, rhyta and lekythoi, as well as some white-ground vases.

A burnt fragment of a plate with a depiction of a reveller, attributed to the Brygos Painter, was found by archaeologists on the Athens Acropolis among the "Perserschutt", deposits of rubble from the Persian destruction of 480 BC. This has been taken as evidence that he was working before this date. His works have also been discovered at other archaeological sites in Greece and Italy.
 
 
He painted mythological scenes, particularly Homeric themes and Achilles, as well as genre scenes, including symposia and athletes. The depictions are innovative in style and technique, and he often experimented with spatial effects, settings and washes. His drawing style is elegant, usually with fine, clear contours, and he has been praised for the poses and details of his figures, particularly the well-observed, expressive faces, and the lively interaction between characters. In some cases the names of the characters are inscribed.

Those paintings thought to be his later works are considered to be of poorer quality. Beazley commented that a painting on a kylix now in Milan (see photo below) was "late and especially poor", although other scholars consider even his poorer work was superior to that of many of his contemporaries.

He is best known for the "Iliupersis Cup" or "Brygos Cup", a red-figure kylix signed by Brygos on a handle, depicting the Ilioupersis (Ἰλίου πέρσις, Iliou persis, Sack of Ilium, usually referred to as the Sack of Troy). Circa 480-475 BC. Excavated at Vulci, Etruria. Louvre Museum, Paris. Inv. No. G 152. See: www.louvre.fr/...
 
An Attic red-figure kylix by Brygos Painter at My Favourite Planet

The tondo of an Attic red-figure kylix (wine cup) with a painting of a young woman, wearing
a long chiton (tunic), holding a stiula (bucket) in her left hand and the rope of a well in the right.
Below the situla is a pithos (large storage jar), used as a water tank, half buried in the ground.
The word ΚΑΛΕ (KALE, good, beautiful) is inscribed on the situla and vertically on the background,
left of the figure. The sides of the cup are undecorated.

Made in Athens, 490-480 BC. Attributed to the Brygos Painter
by Sir John Beazley. Provenance unknown.

Greek section, Civic Archaeological Museum, Milan.
Inv. No. A 0.9.266. From the Seletti Collection.
 
Potters and
vase painters
C
Choregos Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Apulia, Magna Graecia (southern Italy), perhaps in Metapontion (Μεταπόντιον) on the gulf of Tarentum, active around 400-370 BC.
  The few vase paintings attributed to the Choregos Painter depict theatrical scenes. Named by Arthur Dale Trendall (1909-1995) after "the Choregos vase" (or "the Choregoi vase"), an Apulian red-figure bell krater, 400-380 BC, with a scene from a Phlyax play depicting Aegisthos, two choregoi and Pyrrhias. Formerly in the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. Inv. No. 96.AE.29. Returned to Italy in accordance with agreements of 2007 concerning looted artworks.

"The Krater of the Gluttons" (Italian, "il Cratere dei Ghiottoni"), also known as "the Milan Cake-eaters", "the Stealers of dainties" and "the Eaters of dainties", is also attributed to the Choregos Painter. An Apulian red-figure bell krater, 380-370 BC, excavated in 1883 at Ruvo di Puglia (Bari), southern Italy. Side A depicts a theatrical scene from a Phlyax farce, with the inscribed names of three characters. Side B shows a parody of the myth of Herakles holding up the heavens in the place of Atlas. Civic Archaeological Museum, Milan. Inv. No. A 0.9.2841.
 
Christie Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 450-420 BC.
  An Attic red-figure pelike with a Dionysiac scene, 450-425 BC, attributed to the Christie Painter. Paolo Orsi Regional Archaeological Museum, Syracuse. Inv. No. 35188.  
Cock Group

(Gruppo del Gallo)

A group of black-figure vase painters working in Athens around 525-501 BC.
  An Attic black-figure lekythos (oinment jar) with a depiction of Dionysus dancing with two satyrs. On the shoulder is a cockerel between two heart-shaped leaves. Attributed to the Cock Group by Italian archaeologist Claudia Lambrugo. Late 6th - early 5th century BC. Civic Archaeological Museum, Milan. Inv. No. A 0.9.148.  
 
Potters and
vase painters
D
Darius Painter

Vase painter of the red-figure technique, in Apulia, southeast Italy, active around 340-320 BC.

Considered one of the greatest and most prolific Apulian vase painters. He may have been the owner or foreman of a large workshop, perhaps at Taras (Taranto) or Canosa (Canosa di Puglia), Apulia, southeast Italy. It has recently been suggested that he and other contemporary vase painters may have worked elsewhere, perhaps in Lucania (Basilicata).
  He was named by Arthur Dale Trendall (1909-1995) after the "Darius vase" (his name vase, also known as the "Persian vase"), a large volute krater (height 130 cm, diameter 60 cm) discovered in 1851 near Canosa di Puglia. Now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples. Inv. No. 81947 (H 3253).

None of his works are signed, but many feature inscriptions with the names of historical and mythical figures and subjects depicted in scenes taken from history, myths and the Classical theatre, particularly the tragedies of Euripides. Some paintings show scenes not known from other surviving artworks. He mostly painted large vases, including volute kraters, amphorae and loutrophoroi. He also painted Dionysian motifs, erotes, wedding scenes and women, particularly on pelikes. His draughtsmanship and compositions are bold and colourful, although not usually very dramatic. On the larger vases, a number of scenes are depicted on several registers.

A large number of works attributed to the Darius Painter are now in collections and museums around the world.

A fragment of an Apulian red-figure volute krater shows a scene from a Gigantomachy, with Athena fighting the giant Enkelados. Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg. Inv. No. 2010.18.
 
Diphilos

Δίφιλος

The owner of a pottery workshop in Myrina, Mysia (northwestern Anatolia), known from several signed terracotta figurines.

Late 1st century BC - early 1st century AD
  A terracotta figurine of Herakles, found in the Myrina necropolis, signed on the back by Diphilos. Berlin State Museums (SMB). Inv. No. TC 8154.  
Dodwell Painter

Black-figure vase painter in Corinth,
active around 600-570 BC

One of the most important and influential vase painters of the Middle and Late Corinthian periods (circa 600-550 BC).

He painted friezes of animals, horsemen and mythological figures, mainly on oinochoai and pyxides, but also on neck amphorae and hydriai.
  Around 70 vases have been attributed to the Dodwell Painter. He is named after the "Dodwell Pyxis", an inscribed Middle Corinthian convex pyxis, around 590 BC, once owned by the Irish writer and painter Edward Dodwell (1767-1832). Dodwell purchased the pyxis in 1806 near Corinth, and kept it in his private museum of antiquities in Rome. It was later purchased with other objects from Dodwell's collection on behalf of Ludwig I of Bavaria, and is now in the Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich. Inv. No. 47.

On the lid of the pyxis is a depiction of the Kalydonian Boar hunt as well as other unconnected mythological figures, including Agamemnon. The figures are named by inscriptions, although not all appear to match the respective figure.

Other significant examples of his work include an olpe (jug) in the National Etruscan Museum, Villa Giulia, Rome, with a frieze depicting komasts dacing around a krater, and vases in the Saint Louis Art Museum, Inv. No. 174.1924, and the Martin von Wagner Museum, University of Würzburg, Inv. No. L 120.

A Corinthian black-figure olpe (jug), first decades of the 6th century BC, painted with three friezes in horizontal bands. The top band shows dancers wearing padded costumes in erotic scenes. In the middle Herakles and Iolaos fight the Lernean Hydra, watched by Athena. In the bottom band is a frieze of animals. Civic Archaeological Museum, Milan. Inv. No. A 0.9.21532.
 
Dolon Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Lucania (Basilicata), southeast Italy, active around 390-380 BC.

He was part of the second generation of vase painters in the workshop at Metapontion (Μεταπόντιον) on the gulf of Tarentum, established by the Pisticci Painter and the Amykos Painter. His work was close to that of Apulian vase painters of the "Plain" style, and particularly close to the Tarporley Painter, with whom he may have worked.
  He was named by Arthur Dale Trendall (1909-1995) after a red-figure calyx krater, circa 390-380 BC, depicting Odysseus and Diomedes ambushing the Trojan spy Dolon (his name vase). British Museum. GR 1846.9-25.3 (Vase F157).

Several vases have been attributed to the Dolon Painter on the basis of style. He often painted mythological subjects.
 
 
Potters and
vase painters
E
Eucharides Painter

Vase painter in Athens,
active around 500-460 BC.

Perhaps a pupil of the Nikoxenos Painter.
  Named by John Beazley after the signature of the potter Meidias inscribed on a hydria now in the British Museum, Vase E 224.

A variety of black-figure and red-figure vases, from large kraters to small cups, have been attributed to the Eucharides painter. His subjects were scenes from mythology and daily life. He painted number of Panathenaic prize amphoras, traditionally decorated in black-figure, and may have the first red-figure artist to have painted a number of them after 500BC.

A red-figure oichonoe depicting Nike at an altar by the Eucharides Painter. Around 490-480 BC. Agora Museum, Athens. Inv. No. P 15010.

A black-figure Panathenaic prize amphora, around 500-490 BC. Side A: Athena Promachos, with helmet, aegis, spear and shield, between two columns topped by cockerels. Side B: a horse race between two nude youths with long hair, each holding a three-thonged whip. British Museum. Inv. No. GR 1836,0224.193 (Vase B133).
 
Euphronios

Εὐφρόνιος

Vase painter and potter in Athens,
active around 535 - after 470 BC.

Probably a pupil of Psiax.

He worked in the workshops of the potters Kachrylion, who produced drinking cups, and Euxitheos, but appears to have worked with other potters on other vase forms. He may have had his own workshop from around 500 BC.

Originally a painter of black-figure pottery, he became part of the Pioneer Group, the modern name given to a group of vase painters involved in the shift from black-figure to red-figure pottery and the transition from Late Archaic to Early Classical art. The group also included the Dikaios Painter, Euthymides, Hypsias, Phintias, Smikros and the Sosias Painter. They were not the inventors of the red-figure technique, thought to have been first practised in the workshop of the potter Andokides around 530 BC, perhaps by the Andokides Painter or Psiax. Members of the group adopted the technique up to ten years after its invention, and Euphronios' earliest red-figure works are dated to around 520 BC.

He was one of the most important artists of the red-figure technique, and one of the first known artists to sign his work. His drawing style is clear, bold, precise and detailed, and his compositions monumental. He experimented with various painting styles and techniques.
  Around 27 mostly fragmentary black-figure and red-figure vases, including drinking cups, kraters and amphoras, have been attributed to Euphronios. His subjects were scenes from mythology and daily life.

His finest work is considered to be the "Euphronios krater" (or "Sarpedon krater"), a red-figured calyx-krater dated around 515 BC, signed by Euxitheos as potter and Euphronios as painter. Height 45.7 cm, diameter 55.1 cm. It is the only vase by Euphronios to have survived complete.

Side A shows the death of the Homeric hero Sarpedon, son of Zeus and king of Lycia, who was killed by Patrocles during the Trojan War. Hermes directs Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death) who carry Sarpedon's corpse after it has been rescued by Phoebus Apollo. On side B, three young Athenians put on their armour before battle.

Looted by grave robbers from an Etruscan tomb near Cerveteri, Italy (ancient Caere, Etruria) in 1971. Formerly in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Inv. No. 1972.11.10), it was returned to Italy in 2008. First moved to the National Etruscan Museum, Villa Giulia, Rome (Inv. No. L.2006.10), it is now in the National Archaeological Museum of Cerveteri.

Beazley Archive Database, Vase No. 187

See a fragment of a black-figure Attic krater with the head of Herakles, attributed to Euphronios, below.
 
Fragment of a krater with the head of Herakles, attributed to Euphronios at My Favourite Planet

Fragment of a red-figure Attic krater with the head
of Herakles wearing the skin of the Nemean Lion.

Attributed to Euphronios, circa 510-500 BC. Distance between left
angle of the eye and the point of the beard 7 cm. Thickness 7-8 cm.

Provenance unknown. It may have belonged to the Milanese lawyer
and historian Emilio Seletti (1830-1913), who donated most of his
collection to the Musei Civici of Milan at the end of the 1900s.

Civic Archaeological Museum, Milan. Inv. No. A 0.9.1810.

See:

Gian Guido Belloni (1919-1996), A Fragment of Euphronios in the Musei Civici in Milan.
American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 54, No. 2 (April - June 1950), pages 119-120. At jstor.

Beazley Archive Database, Vase No. 200067
Exekias

Ἐξηκίας (signature ΕΧΣΕΚΙΑΣ, Exsekias)

Potter and painter in Athens,
active around 550-525 BC

He taught the Andokides Painter, who with Psiax, is among those credited with the invention of red-figure painting around 530 BC.
  Exekias is considered to be the best black-figure painter. His signature as painter and potter has been found on two vases, and another ten as potter only. Around 30 vases are attributed to him.

See further information and
photos on the Exekias page.
 
 
Potters and
vase painters
F
Foundry Painter

Vase painter in Athens,
active around 500-470 BC.

He worked in the workshop of the potter Brygos, and specialized in cups. He also worked with Onesimos, Euphronios and the Brygos Painter.
  The Foundry Painter is named after the "Berlin Foundry Cup" (German, Erzgießerei-Schale), an Attic red-figure kylix (drinking cup), made in Athens 490-480 BC. The outside (Sides A and B) shows men making sculptures at a bronze foundry. The tondo on the inside depicts Hephaistos giving Thetis the armour he has made for her son Achilles during the Trojan War. Berlin State Museums (SMB). Currently in the Altes Museum. Inv. No. F 2294.  
 
Potters and
vase painters
G
Gela Painter

Black-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 500-450 BC.
  Most of the vase paintings attributed to the Gela Painter are on lekythoi (small funerary vases), found in Italy (Magna Graecia, or West Greece), and particularly in Sicily, to where they had been exported from Athens. His real name is unknown; he is named after the ancient Greek colony Gela, on the south coast of Sicily, where many of his works have been discovered.

Images by this prolific but "undistinguished" painter, mainly mythological and genre scenes, are original but executed in a loose, "careless" manner.

A black-figure lekythos by the Gela Painter with a fountain scene. From the Athenian Agora. Circa 500 BC. Agora Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. P 24106.
 
 
Potters and
vase painters
H
Hermonax

Ἑρμῶναξ

Red-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 470-440 BC.

Probably a pupil of the Berlin Painter, he was a contemporary of the Providence Painter.
  Over 150 vases have been attributed to him, including 10 signed "Hermonax has painted it". He mainly painted large vessels, including pelikai and stamnoi, but also lekythoi and some cups. Many of his surviving works depict Dionysiac themes.

Among the many vases and fragments in museums and collections is a red-figure krater depicting a fighting Centaur, now in the Civic Archaeological Museum, Milan. Inv. No. A 0.9.8024.
 
 
Potters and
vase painters
I
Iliupersis Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Apulia, Magna Graecia (south Italy), active around 375-350 BC.

One of the pioneers of the middle phase of Apulian vase painting and the "Ornate Style" (also known as the "Rich Style"). Innovations of form and decoration during this phase included: the introduction of elaborate funerary scenes (naiskos vases); fluting (rippling) of lower sections of vessels; extra colours, particularly white and yellow, as well as red and brown; the motif of a female head rising from a flower between tendrils (usually on the necks of vessels); and moulded and painted medallions on the volutes of volute kraters, featuring figures or heads (mascaroons). The Iliupersis Painter has been credited by some scholars with the development of these innovations, which caught on rapidly and are found on an enormous number of south Italian vases from the mid 4th century BC. Around 1,200 surviving red-figured vessels from southern Italian, for example, depict a deceased person in a naiskos (ναΐσκος, diminutive of ναός, temple). See an Apulian red-figure volute krater in Milan on the Medusa page.

He is associated with a number of other contemporary vase painters, including the Painter of Athens 1714, who may have been employed in the same workshop.

Thought to have taught the Lycurgus Painter.
  More than 100 paintings on a wide variety of vase types, including 14 volute kraters, have been attributed to the Iliupersis Painter. He painted mythological, bridal, funerary and dramatic scenes featuring several figures on two or more registers (levels) on the necks and bodies of vessels.

He was named by Arthur Dale Trendall (1909-1995), who called him "an artist of the highest importance ", after an Apulian red-figure volute krater depicting the Ilioupersis (Ἰλίου πέρσις, Iliou persis, Sack of Ilium, usually referred to as the Sack of Troy). Around 370-350 BC. From Basilicata (ancient Lucania, Λευκανία, Leukania), Italy. British Museum. Inv. No. 1867,0508.1333 (Vase F 160).
See: www.britishmuseum.org ...

Another well-known vase painting attributed to him is on a volute krater, 370-350 BC, with a depiction Persephone and Plouton in a quadriga, accompanied by Hekate and Hermes. British Museum. Inv. No. 1885,0314.1 (Vase F 277, not on display).
See: www.britishmuseum.org ...

One of his less elaborate works is a red-figure skyphos (cup) with a depiction of a fight between a gryphon and an Arimaspian (see photo below). 380-360 BC. Side B shows a gryphon attacking a horse. Greek section, Civic Archaeological Museum, Milan. Inv. No. A 2000.01.03.
 
A fight between a gryphon and an Arimaspian in Milan at My Favourite Planet

An Apulian red-figure skyphos (cup) with a depiction
of a fight between a gryphon and an Arimaspian.

380-360 BC. Attributed to the Iliupersis Painter.

Side B shows a gryphon attacking a horse.

Greek section, Civic Archaeological Museum, Milan. Inv. No. A 2000.01.03.

The Arimaspians (Αριμασποί, Arimaspoi) were a legendary or mythical tribe of one-eyed people, said to have lived in northern Scythia, who fought the gryphons (or griffins) for the gold that they guarded. The earliest mention of them is by Herodotus (Histories, Book 4, chapters 13 and 27), who reported that they featured in a poem by Aristeas of Proconnesos (Ἀριστέας), thought to have lived in the 7th century BC. The Arimaspians and the now lost poem, known as the Arimaspea (Ἀριμάσπεα), were subsequently mentioned by Aischylos (Prometheus Bound), Strabo, Pliny the Elder and Pausanias.  
 
Potters and
vase painters
L
Lycurgus Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Apulia, Magna Graecia (south Italy), active around 360-340 BC.

One of the leading painters of the second phase of the "Ornate Style" of south Italian red-figure vase painting.

Thought to have been a pupil of the Iliupersis Painter.
  Paintings on several vases and fragments, mostly large vessels, have been attributed to the Lycurgus Painter. He painted mythological scenes featuring several figures, often in mannered poses and with dramatic facial expressions, and including illusions of perspective and spacial depth.

He was named by Arthur Dale Trendall after an Apulian red-figure calyx krater depicting King Lycurgus (Λυκοῦργος) of Thrace, driven mad by Dionysus, attacking his wife. Around 350-340 BC. From Ruvo di Puglia (Bari), southern Italy. British Museum. Inv. No. GR 1849.6-23.48 (Vase F 271).

The "Parthenopaios krater", an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, is also attributed to the Lycurgus Painter. Civic Archaeological Museum, Milan. Inv. No. A 0.9.1872 (St. 6873).
 
Lydos

Λυδός (the Lydian), perhaps a nickname

Black-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 560-540 BC.

Leader of the "Lydos Group".

Thought to have been a migrant or son of migrants from Lydia in Anatolia (Asia Minor), who learned his trade in Athens.

Along with Amasis and Exekias, considered as one of the most important and influentual Attic black-figure artists.

See also Lydos the slave below.
  Lydos signed two black-figure vases as "hό Λυδός" (ho Lydos, the Lydian):

Fragments of a dinos depicting a Gigantomachy, found on the Athens Acropolis. Surviving parts of figures and inscribed names include Aphrodite, Artemis, Dionysus, Hephaistos, Herakles, Hermes and a Giant. Two incised signatures on a fragment of the rim are thought to refer to Lydos as painter and potter: [hο δεινα εποιε]σεν [:] hο Λυδος : ε[γ]ραφ̣σ̣[εν] ([ho deina epoi]sen ho Lydos e[g]raphs[en]). National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. Acr. 1.607.

Beazley Archive Database, Vase No. 310147

A fragmentary B-type amphora in the Louvre, depicting the Ilioupersis (the Sack of Troy) and the death of Priam. In his raised right hand the Greek hero Neoptolemos swings the young Trojan prince Astyanax by his ankle (see Homer). Between the right side of Neoptolemos' body and his shield Lydos' signature is written vertically: hο Λυδος : εγρ[αφ]σεν (ho Lydos : egr[aps]sen). The fragments of Side B show Herakles, probably fighting Kyknos. Thought to be one of Lydos' early works, around 560 BC. Height 27 cm, diameter 25 cm. Louvre. Inv. No. F 29. Purchased from the Campana Collection in 1861.

Beazley Archive Database, Vase No. 310167

See also: cartelfr.louvre.fr/cartelfr/...

 
Identification of paintings by Lydos has proved difficult since works possibly by him, although similar in style, vary considerably in quality, and due to the fact that he is thought to have been prolific and to have had a long career. Around 100 vessels of various shapes and sizes, including kraters, hydriai, amphorae, loutrophoroi, plates, cups (Siana cups, band cups), a "trick jug" and a psykter-amphora as well as funerary pinakes (plaques), have been securely attributed to Lydos. The attribution of another 74 works is less certain, and may have been made by painters in his workshop, the "Lydos Group", or imitators. Some of these are referred to as being in the "manner" or "style" of Lydos.

Attributed works include:

A large column krater painted right around the body with a lively but dignified depiction of the return of Hephaistos to Olympus (see Hephaistos), accompanied by Dionysus, in a procession with Maenads and Satyrs. Circa 550 BC. Height 56.4 cm, width 69.3 cm, diameter 58.6 cm. Metropolitan Museum, New York. Inv. No. 31.11.11.

See: metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/253349

A double-walled psykter-amphora (wine cooler) showing Dionysus with satyrs and a maenad on one side, and Theseus killing the Minotaur on the other. Height 32 cm. British Museum. Inv. No. GR 1848,0619.5 (Vase B 148).

An Attic black-figure krater from Thermi, Macedonia showing the Kalydonian Boar hunt (see photo below). Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. Θε 546.

Fragments of a band cup from Italy, signed by Nikosthenes as potter, depicting wrestlers. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Inv. No. 1966.768.

A belly amphora from Vulci, with depictions of Menelaos recovering Helen to the left, and the death of Priam to the right. State Museums Berlin (SMB). Inv. No. F 1685.

An oinochoe signed by Kolchos as potter. On the body Herakles, supported by Athena, fights Ares over Kyknos, with Zeus intervening. From Vulci. Height 25.5 cm. State Museums Berlin (SMB). Inv. No. F 1732.

A plate with a large bearded Gorgoneion filling the centre. Diameter 24 cm. Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich. Inv. No. 8760.

In the Kerameikos Archaeological Museum, Athens (see photos below): fragments of a black-figure plate with a depiction of mourning males, Inv. No. 1909; fragments of a black-figure bowl with a depiction of mourning males; fragments of a black-figure vessel with a depiction of an Amazonomachy.
 
Lydos "the slave"

Λυδός δο̃λος

Black-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 550-500 BC.

Thought to be from Myrina, Aeolia, western Anatolia (Asia Minor, today Turkey).
  The signature on an inscribed Attic black-figure kyathos, dated to around 550-500 BC, is unclear, but has been read as Λυδὸς ἔγραφσεν δολοσ ον μυδεασσ ευγε[...]ο (Lydos painted it, slave from Myrina), and is thought not to be by the better-known Lydos above. The painting of an assembly of eleven Olympian gods (some names inscribed) with Herakles is in a different style ("late weak style") to other paintings attributed to Lydos. From Tomb 145, Osteria necropolis, Vulci, Etruria (Lazio, Italy). National Etruscan Museum, Villa Giulia, Rome. Inv. No. 84,466.

Beazley Archive Database, Vase No. 6247.
 
The Kalydonian Boar hunt by Lydos on an Attic black-figure krater at My Favourite Planet

Detail of an Attic black-figure krater showing the Kalydonian Boar hunt.

Attributed to Lydos, around 550 BC. Used as a funerary urn.
Excavated at the cemetery in Thermi, Macedonia, Greece.

Side B shows a water bird between two boars.

Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. Θε 546.
Athenian black-figure plate by Lydos at My Favourite Planet

Fragments of an Athenian black-figure plate with
a depiction of draped youths and men mourning.

From the Kerameikos, Athens. Attributed to Lydos, around 575-525 BC.

Kerameikos Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 1909.
Athenian black-figure bowl painted by Lydos at My Favourite Planet

Reconstructed fragments of an Athenian black-figure bowl,
with a depiction of draped males mourning.

From the Kerameikos (T HTR 3/VII), Athens.
Attributed to Lydos, around 550 BC.

Kerameikos Archaeological Museum.
Amazonomachy by Lydos at My Favourite Planet

Fragments of an Athenian black-figure vessel, perhaps a cauldron,
with a depiction of an Amazonomachy, featuring Herakles (left).

From the Kerameikos, Athens. Attributed to Lydos, around 550 BC.

Kerameikos Archaeological Museum.
 
Potters and
vase painters
M
Micali Painter

Etruscan vase painter, late 6th century BC.
  Etruscan neck amphora ("Round dance") by the Micali Painter, about 525-500 BC.
Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. V.I. 3226.
 
Mykonos Painter

Vase painter in Athens, mid 5th century BC.
  Perseus holding the head of Medusa by the Mykonos Painter, an Attic red-figure calyx-krater, made in Athens about 460-450 BC.
Museo Civico, Castello Ursino, Catania, Sicily.
Inv. No. 4399. From the Biscari Collection.

Beazley Archive Database, Vase No. 205773
 
 
Potters and
vase painters
N
Nessos Painter

Also referred to as the Nettos Painter.

Vase painter in Athens, active around 620-600 BC.

Originally named the Nettos Painter by Sir John Davidson Beazley (Beazley Archive Database, Vase No. 300025), after the "Nessos Amphora".

His style has been described as Late Protoattic or Early black-figure. He is thought to have been the first Athenian to adopt the Corinthian style. He developed his own style, introduced a number of innovations, and was a pioneer of Attic black-figure vase painting. It has also been suggested that he was the first Athenian vase painter whose work was traded internationally.
  Named after the "Nessos Amphora", a large Archaic Attic black-figure amphora, circa 620–610 BC, discovered in Athens in 1890. The painting on the neck depicts Herakles fighting with the Centaur Nessos, with the inscribed names of the figures Ηερακλες (Herakles) and Nετ[τ]ος (Nettos). The body shows two winged Gorgons and the decapitated body of Medusa. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 1002 (CC 657).

A now lost fragmentary louterion (λουτήριον, wide spouted krater), also attributed to the Nessos Painter, was found in a well in the ancient city of Aegina, among other ceramic fragments, mostly of Corinthian pottery. Two of the inscribed painted panels from around the top of the vessel's body had survived. One showed Athena (name inscribed) standing behind Perseus (name inscribed) running or flying to the right in the "Knielauf" position, pursuing the headless Medusa and her two Gorgon sisters (figures missing). The other panel depicted two winged Harpies (inscription ΑΡΕΠΥΙΕ), running/flying to the right. Fragments of a lower band showed sphinxes and animals (horses, panthers, bulls). Height of louterion 28 cm, diameter 55 cm. State Museums Berlin (SMB). Inv. No. F 1682.

See: Adolf Furtwängler (1853-1907), Beschreibung der Vasensammlung im Antiquarium, Erster Band. Königliche Museen zu Berlin. Pages 220-221, No. 1682 (2636). W. Spemann, Berlin, 1885. At the Internet Archive.

 
Other vases and fragments attributed to the Nessos Painter include:

An Attic black-figure belly amphora, circa 620-610 BC, found in the Athens Agora in 1932. The vessel is decorated on each side with a sphinx. Height 45.7 cm, width 34.5 cm. Museum of the Ancient Agora, Athens. Inv. No. P 1247.

A fragmentary skyphos krater from Vari, southwest Attica. Fragments on the body include parts of a depiction of Herakles freeing Prometheus. Height 110.6 cm. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 16384.

Fragments of a skyphos krater from Athens, with parts of a depiction of Bellerephon and Chimaera. Kerameikos Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 154.

A belly amphora depicting lions on the neck and griffins on the body. Height 79 cm. State Museums Berlin (SMB) Inv. No. 1961.
 
A reconstruction of a pottery kiln of the Middle Bronze Age at My Favourite Planet

Fragments an Attic black-figure funerary amphora, attributed to the Chimaera Painter
by Sir John Beazley. Around 620-600 BC, thought to be an early phase of the Nessos
Painter. On the neck are fragments of two confronted seated sphinxes, and on the
body fragments of two confronted chimeras. Spaces are filled with rosettes as well
as stars of five red points. Height 34 cm, diameter 80 cm.

Aegina Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 2812.
 
Potters and
vase painters
O
Orpheus Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 450 BC.
  Named after "Orpheus among the Thracians", an Attic red-figure column krater, circa 450 BC, depicting Orpheus playing to a group of Thracian warriors. Discovered in Gela, southern Sicily. Berlin State Museums (SMB). Inv. No. V. I. 3172.  
 
Potters and
vase painters
P
Polygnotos

Πολύγνωτος (also referred to as Polygnotos I)

Red-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 450-420 BC.

He trained in the workshop of the Niobid Painter, and followed his master in painting mythical, religious and combat scenes. Considered one of the most important painters of the red-figure style of the High Classical period, he specialized in monumental vases, including kraters, hydria, stamnoi and shoulder amphorae, but also painted smaller pelike and Nolan amphorae. His signature has been found on five vases.

He led a workshop known as the Group of Polygnotos, including other painters whose names are known, to which around 700 vases have been attributed. Another two hundred vases by unnamed painters may also be products of the group.

Two other vase painters were named Polygnotos: an Early Classical painter of skyphoi, usually referred to as the Lewis Painter or Polygnotos II; and a "later Mannerist", known as the Nausicaa Painter.
  An Attic red-figure stamnos, attributed to Polygnotos, circa 430-420 BC, depicting Theseus abducting Helen. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 18063.

An Attic red-figure pelike, circa 450-440 BC, attributed to Polygnotos, with a finely drawn depiction of Perseus beheading the sleeping Medusa. One of the earliest depictions of Medusa as a beautiful young woman rather than a hideous monster. The other side shows King Polypeithes (named in the inscription, but not otherwise known) between two women.

Metropolitan Museum, New York.
Inv. No. 45.11.1.


An Attic red-figure stamnos attributed to Polygnotus, 450-430 BC, depicting the "Entrail Roaster" (σπλαγχνόπτης, splanchnoptes, man cooking intestines), in the British Museum. This scene may be related to the bronze "Entrail Roaster" statue by the Cypriot sculptor Styppax, which according to Pliny the Elder depicted a favourite slave of Pericles (Natural History, Book 22, chapter 20 and Book 34, chapter 19).
 
Polyphemos Painter

(or Polyphemus Painter)

A high Proto-Attic vase painter and perhaps potter, active in Athens or on Aegina, mid 7th century BC.

He may have been a pupil of the Mesogeia Painter.
  Named after the "Eleusis Amphora", a large Proto-Attic amphora, dated to around 660 BC, discovered in Eleusis, Greece. The neck depicts Odysseus and his companions blinding the Cyclops Polyphemos, the body shows Perseus and the Gorgons. Eleusis Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 2630.  
Pourtalès Painter

Athenian late red-figure vase painter, around 380-360 BC.

A painter of Kerch style vases of the final phase of Attic red-figure pottery production, around 375-330/20 BC. The name of such vases is due to the fact that a large quantity of them were found at Kerch (ancient Pantikapaion), on the Black Sea coast of the Crimea. Most are now in the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
  A small number of vases have been attributed to Pourtalès Painter on the basis of style. He was named by John D. Beazley after the French-Swiss author Guy de Pourtalès (1881-1941), the former owner of a large, red-figure bell krater now in the British Museum. Side A shows the initiation of Herakles and the Dioskouroi into the Eleusinian Mysteries, with Demeter, Persephone, Triptolemos and other figures. Side B shows Dionysus, Plouton and Hephaistos with satyrs and maenads. Inv. No. GR 1865.1-3.14 (Vase F68).
See britishmuseum.org ...

A bell krater in Berlin, depicting Hermes and Herakles in the underworld, is also attributed to the Pourtalès Painter. Berlin State Museums (SMB). Inv. No. 31094.
 
Psiax

Ψίαξ (signature ΦΣΙΑΧΣ, Fsiaxs)

Vase painter and potter in Athens,
active around 525-505 BC.

He was initially named the Menon Painter by John Beazley, after the potter's signature on a red-figure type A amphora in the Penn Museum, Philadelphia. Inv. No. 5399. However, by 1913 Beazley had already suggested that the amphora was by Psiax, and in 1934 Gisela M. A. Richter demonstrated that the Menon Painter and Psiax were the same person.

See: Gisela M. A. Richter, The Menon Painter = Psiax. American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 38, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec. 1934), pages 547-554. At jstor.

He painted black-figure vases, and played a major role in the early development of the red-figure technique, invented in the workshop of the potter Andokides around 530 BC. Some scholars credit Psiax with the invention.

He worked with the potters Hilinos, Menon, Andokides and Nikosthenes. His black-figure work is stylistically close to that of the Antimenes Painter, who worked for the same workshop.

He probably taught Euphronios and Phintias (Φιντίας).
  Around 60 surviving vases, dated circa 525-505 BC, have been attributed to Psiax, mostly small vessels, but also large amphorae, hydriai and chalice kraters. Two of the works, both red-figure alabastra (Odessa Archaeological Museum and Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe), have his signature as well as that of the potter Hilinos. Three of the other vases are signed by the potter Andokides.

Many of the works are black-figure, but he also used other techniques, such as white-ground, coral red, and Six's technique (adding colours, white or red, on the black ground, and incised details), and was a pioneer of red-figure painting and even "bilingual" vases (decorated in black and red-figure). His main subjects were Dionysiac scenes, myths of Herakles, archers and horses. His painting style has been described as fine, lively, dignified and restrained.

Black-figure Attic plate by Psiax, 540-510 BC, with an armed warrior. Found in the Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia. Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. F 2099.

Beazley Archive Database No. 320364.

Other works attributed to Psiax are at: the British Museum; National Archaeological Museum of Spain, Madrid; Museo, Brescia; Metropolitan Museum, New York; J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu; Philadelphia University Museum.
 
 
Potters and
vase painters
S
Sophilos

Σώφιλος

Potter and black-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 590-570 BC.

The earliest Athenian vase painter whose signature has survived and whose true name is known.
  37 vessels have been attributed to Sophilos, mostly amphorae, dinoi (wine bowls), kraters, as well as three pinakes (plaques). Fragments of two dinoi were signed by him as potter and painter. His work was made for the domestic market and for export to south Italy, the Black Sea, Syria and Egypt (Naukratis).

An Attic black-figure column krater attributed to Sophilos, around 590 BC, depicting Herakles wrestling with Nereus in the presence of Hermes. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 12587.

An Attic black-figure amphora, a late work of Sophilos, circa 580 BC. The painting on the neck shows Hermes standing between two sphinxes. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 1030.

A large Attic black-figure dinos (wine bowl), circa 580 BC, with a depiction of a procession of deities attending the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, signed by Sophilos. British Museum. Inv. No. 1971.11-1.1.
 
Sosias

Σοσιας

Potter in Athens,
active around 510-490 BC.
  Little is known about this potter. He has been identified by the signature Σοσιας εποιεσεν (Sosias epoiesen, Sosias made [me]) incised on the foot of an Attic red-figure kylix, circa 500 BC, now in the Berlin State Museums (SMB). Inv. No. F 2278. (see Sosias Painter below).

His incised signature is also preserved on the foot of another cup, the only part of the vessel to have survived, in Berlin. Inv. No. F 2315.
 
Sosias Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 510-490 BC.

Presumably working in the workshop of the potter Sosias.

His style resembles later works of Euphronios, and he may have worked with him. He is thus also thought to have been a member of the Pioneer Group of early red-figure painters.
  The Sosias Painter was named by John Beazley after an Attic red-figure kylix (drinking cup), made around 500 BC, signed Σοσιας εποιεσεν (Sosias epoiesen, Sosias made [me]). The signature is thought to be that of the potter Sosias rather than the painter. The painting on the tondo inside the cup depicts "Achilles binding Patroklos". On the outside is a depiction of the Apotheosis of Herakles. Found by Fossati in 1828 in the Necropolis Campo Scala, Vulci, Italy.
Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. F 2278.
 
Syleus Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 490-470 BC.
  Fifty one works have been attributed to the Syleus Painter, named after a red-figure stamnos in Copenhagen depicting Herakles fighting Syleus.

An Attic stamnos, 480-470 BC, showing Dionysus, holding a drinking horn, with two dancing maenads. Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. F2182.

An Attic black-figure kalpis (κάλπις, type of hydria) showing Zeus handing the infant Dionysus to the nymphs. Around 480 BC. From Agrigento, Sicily. Cabinet des Medailles, Paris. Inv. No. 440. Height 38.2 cm, width 43 cm.
 
Syriskos Painter

Red-figure vase painter in Athens,
active around 480 BC.
  An Attic red-figure calyx-krater, circa 480 BC, from the Athens Acropolis, attributed to the Syriskos Painter, showing Theseus fighting the Minotaur in the Labyrinth. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. Acr. 735.  
A reconstruction of a Bronze Age pottery kiln at My Favourite Planet

A reconstruction of a pottery kiln of the Middle Bronze Age
(Middle Helladic, 2000-1600 BC) from Aegina, Greece.

The model is a copy of a well-preserved original discovered in the 1980s during
archaeological excavations by the University of Salzburg, in the inner extension
built at the corner of House 7, in ancient Aegina Kolonna, Town IX, 1800-1650 BC.
Ceramics found at the Cape Kolonna site date back to the Late Stone Age (Neolithic,
5th millenium BC, Town I). Early wheel-made pottery found here dates from around
the end of the Early Bronze Age (Early Helladic III, Town V, 2200-2100 BC).

Model by the Austrian ceramic artist Günter Praschak (1940-2015)
who worked with the archaeologists at Kolonna.

Aegina Archaeological Museum.
A bird painted on a Cycladic jug at My Favourite Planet

Ceramic jug with a bird on either side, painted
in the typical Cycladic "black and red" style.

From Phylakopi on the Cycladic island of Melos.
Middle Cycladic - Late Cycladic I period, around 1600 BC.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 5762.
The Warrior Vase from Mycenae at My Favourite Planet

The "Warrior Vase", a large Mycenaean krater with a depiction of six warriors in full
armour (helmet, cuirass, greaves, shield and spear) departing for war. Each has a sack
of supplies hanging from his spear. On the far left a woman raises her hand, either in
farewell or a mourning gesture. On the other side of the krater are another five warriors,
dressed similarly but with different helmets, raising their spears. The handles are
decorated with reliefs of bovine heads, below which are painted birds and animals.

12th century BC. Excavated in the "House of the Warrior Vase",
Mycenae acropolis, Peloponnese, Greece.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 1426.
A monumental grave amphora by the Dipylon Painter at My Favourite Planet

The "Dipylon Amphora" (or "Dipylon Vase"), the name vase
of the Dipylon Painter. A monumental grave amphora, painted
with a mourning scene (see detail below), animal friezes on
the neck, and otherwise covered by bands of geometric motifs.

Late Geometric period, around 760-750 BC. From the cemetery
near the Dipylon Gate, Kerameikos, Athens. Height 155 cm.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 804.
A mourning scene by the Dipylon Painter at My Favourite Planet

The mourning scene by the Dipylon Painter on the grave amphora above.
The main scene shows the prosthesis (laying out of the corpse) and mourning
for the deceased who lies on a bier covered by a shroud. Below ther bier are
four figures, two kneeling and two sitting. The men, women and children
have their hands on their heads, a usual mourning gesture.
Geometric Boeotian kantharos in Dresden at My Favourite Planet

Late Geometric Boeotian kantharos (drinking cup) with a depiction of three females
with joined hands, probably dancing, and a fourth (male?) figure playing a lyre.
The painting has been interpreted as representing a choral performance or Apollo
and the Muses. It has been suggested that the female on the right is holding
a wreath. On the other side are two boxers between two figures with swords.

Late 8th century BC. Height 14.9 cm.

Studiendepot, Skulpturensammlung, Albertinum, Dresden. No. ZV 1699.
Corinthian column krater by the Detroit Painter at My Favourite Planet

Corinthian column krater with a depiction of a procession of three-horse chariots.
The foremost horses are of a light colour, those behind dark red and black. Behind
the horses of each of the three chariots two female figures stand close together.
In front of the chariots (left to right): a hawk or eagle; a large water bird (a swan?);
a vessel on a stand. In the register below a lion stands between two antelopes.

Attributed to the Detroit Painter, 600-580 BC. Excavated in 1917 at
Tomb II, Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri (ancient Caere, Etruria).

National Etruscan Museum, Villa Giulia, Rome.
An Athenian black-figure hydria made in the workshop of the Lysippides Painter at My Favourite Planet

Detail of a resored Athenian black-figure hydria. On the body a
depiction of a charioteer and an armed warrior on a four-horse chariot.
On the shoulder a battle scene with hoplites and a horseman.

Attributed to the workshop of the Lysippides Painter, around 530-520 BC.
Found in several fragments in Offering Pit T hS 183, Kerameikos, Athens.

Kerameikos Archaeological Museum.
Peisistratos' guard on an Attic black figure amphora at My Favourite Planet

Deatail of an Attic black-figure amphora showing three men walking
with clubs, believed to be a depiction of Peisistratos' guard.

Side B shows a duel between to armed men (see below).

Made in Athens, 530-525 BC. Painting by the Swing Painter.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 15111.
A duel between to armed men painted by the Swing Painter at My Favourite Planet

Side B of the amphora by the Swing Painter above, with a depiction of two armed men duelling.
They are shown in profile, with their upper torsos twisted to face the front. Each has one arm
raised and holding a spear. They both wear crested Corinthian helmets and scabbards, and
carry round shields. The shield of the combatant on the right has a white tripod device. The
man on the left is naked, while the other wears a corselet. A bird of prey flies between them,
carrying a victor's headband in its beak. On either side stands a draped man holding a spear.

Made in Athens, 530-525 BC. Painting by the Swing Painter.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 15111.
Detail of a Panathenaic amphora showing four runners at My Favourite Planet

Detail of a restored black-figure Panathenaic amphora showing four runners
in a race. On the right stands a large vessel, perhaps for water.

Made in Athens, late 6th century BC. Painting attributed to the Leagros Group.
Found in the North Temenos Terrace of the Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia,
Corinthia. The amphora was burnt during the fire in the temple.

Side A shows armed Athena striding to the left, and on each side a cockerel on
a tall column. The dedication ΔΑΜΟΝ ΑΝΕΘΕΚΕ is incised below the image panel.

Isthmia Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. IP 1172.
A quadriga painted by the Painter of Bologna 48 at My Favourite Planet

Detail of an Attic black-figure with a depiction of a quadriga (four-horse chariot)
painted on both sides. Here the charioteer waits for the start of a race.

Around 510 BC. Painting by the Painter of Bologna 48. Found on Rhodes.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 12716.
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Painters

As with sculpture (see Polykleitos), Roman period critics such as Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero, 106-43 BC) and Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, circa 35-100 AD) saw an evolution in technique and aesthetic quality in Greek painting, reaching its most advanced state in the works of Apelles and other painters from the time of Alexander the Great.

"The case is the same in painting; for in the works of Zeuxis, Polygnotus, Timanthes, and several other masters who confined themselves to the use of four colours, we commend the air and the symmetry of their figures; but in Aetion, Nicomachus, Protogenes, and Apelles, every thing is finished to perfection."

Cicero, Brutus, a History of Famous Orators, section 70. At attalus.org.

"The first great painters, whose works deserve inspection for something more than their mere antiquity, are said to have been Polygnotus and Aglaophon *, whose simple colouring has still such enthusiastic admirers that they prefer these almost primitive works, which may be regarded as the first foundations of the art that was to be, over the works of the greatest of their successors, their motive being, in my opinion, an ostentatious desire to seem persons of superior taste.

Later Zeuxis and Parrhasius contributed much to the progress of painting. These artists were separated by no great distance of time, since both flourished about the period of the Peloponnesian war: for example, Xenophon has preserved a conversation between Socrates and Parrhasius. The first-mentioned seems to have discovered the method of representing light and shade, while the latter is said to have devoted special attention to the treatment of line.

For Zeuxis emphasised the limbs of the human body, thinking thereby to add dignity and grandeur to his style: it is generally supposed that in this he followed the example of Homer, who likes to represent even his female characters as being of heroic mould. Parrhasius, on the other hand, was so fine a draughtsman that he has been styled the law-giver of his art, on the ground that all other artists take his representations of gods and heroes as models, as though no other course were possible.

It was, however, from about the period of the reign of Philip down to that of the successors of Alexander that painting flourished more especially, although the different artists are distinguished for different excellences. Protogenes, for example, was renowned for accuracy, Pamphilus and Melanthius for soundness of taste, Antiphilus for facility, Theon of Samos for his depiction of imaginary scenes, known as φαντασίαι (phantasiai), and Apelles for genius and grace, in the latter of which qualities he took especial pride. Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting."

Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Book 12, chapter 10, sections 3-6. At Perseus Digital Library.

* Polygnotus of Thasos, son of Aglaophon, painted at Athens in the mid 5th century BC. Zunis of Heraclea and Parrhasius of Ephesus flourished 420-390 BC. The others were painters of the 4th century BC. Pamphilos of Sikyon was the teacher of Melanthius and Apelles.
 
 
Name / Biographical information   Works / References  
Aetion

Αετίων

Painter and sculptor?

Mid 4th - early 3rd century BC
  A sculptor named Aetion is known from references by Pliny the Elder, Theocritus and Callimachus. Aetion as a painter was mentioned by Cicero, Pliny and Lucian, who described a painting of the Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxana.

See the Aetion page for further details.
 
Apelles

Ἀπελλῆς

4th century BC

Probably born at Kolophon, Ionia, he was a pupil of Ephorus of Ephesus, and later of Pamphilos at Sikyon. He was a younger contemporary of Aristeides of Thebes.

Most of what is known about Apelles was written by Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 35), who also mentions his friendship with the painter Protogenes. He is also mentioned by Plutarch (Alexander, chapter 4), Lucian, Cicero and Quintilian.
  Pliny tells us that Apelles was a fine draughtsman, particularly skilled in drawing faces. He travelled to the court of Philip II in Pella, Macedonia, where he painted Philip and the young Alexander, and was appointed as the court painter of Macedon.

None of his paintings have survived, but are said to have included:

Alexander holding a thunderbolt.

Aphrodite Anadyomene (Aphrodite Rising from the Sea). According to Pliny, he used Campaspe, a former mistress of Alexander, as his model for Aphrodite.

Artemis surrounded by maidens offering a sacrifice, based on a passage from Homer's Odyssey.

The procession of the high priest of Artemis at Ephesus.

Portraits of Antigonus I Monophthalmus on horseback, Clitus the Black and Archelaus I of Macedon.

Sacrifice in Kos, described in the Mimes of Herodas (4.59).

The great allegory of Calumny.

 
Many of his paintings, including Aphrodite Anadyomene, were later taken to Rome and exhibited publicly.

In the satirical novel Satyricon, the Roman author Petronius Petronius Arbiter (circa 27 - 66 AD) described the profound emotional effect of viewing the works of Protogenes and Appelles on his main character, the betrayed lover Encolpius:

"I came into a gallery hung with a wonderful collection of various pictures. I saw the works of Zeuxis not yet overcome by the defacement of time, and I studied with a certain terrified wonder the rough drawings of Protogenes, which rivalled the truth of Nature herself. But when I came to the work of Apelles the Greek which is called the One-legged, I positively worshipped it. For the outlines of his figures were defined with such subtle accuracy, that you would have declared that he had painted their souls as well. In one the eagle was carrying the Shepherd of Ida [Ganymede] on high to heaven, and in another fair Hylas resisted a tormenting Naiad. Apollo passed judgement on his accursed hands, and adorned his unstrung lyre with the newborn flower [Hyacinthus].

I cried out as if I were in a desert, among these faces of mere painted lovers, 'So even the gods feel love. Jupiter in his heavenly home could find no object for his passion, and came down on earth to sin, yet did no one any harm. The Nymph who ravished Hylas would have restrained her passion had she believed that Hercules would come to dispute her claim. Apollo recalled the ghost of a boy into a flower, and all the stories tell of love's embraces without a rival. But I have taken for my comrade a friend more cruel than Lycurgus himself.'"

Petronius, Satyricon, section 83. At Perseus Digital Library.
 
Aristeides of Thebes

(or Aristides) Ἀριστείδης

Also known as Aristeides of Thebes II

Active second half of the 4th century BC

Posssibly the grandson or great grandson of Aristeides of Thebes I, and the son of Aristodemus. He was the pupil of his brother Nikomachus and of Euxenidas. He was an older contemporary of Apelles. He taught his sons Niceros and Ariston, and the latter was the teacher of Antorides and Euphranor.

"... the first of all the painters to give full expression to the mind and passions of man, known to the Greeks as ἤθη, as well as to the mental perturbations which we experience: he was somewhat harsh, however, in his colours."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 35, chapter 36. At Perseus Digital Library.

Athenaeus of Naucratis, citing the treatise by Polemo (probably the geographer Polemo Periegetes, also cited by Strabo) on pictures at Sicyon, wrote that Aristeides, Pausanias and Nikophanes excelled in the portraits of courtesans and were nicknamed Pornographoi (πορνόγραφοι, pornographers).

Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists, Book 13, chapter 21. At Perseus Digital Library.
  Aristeides painted a "Battle with the Persians", presumed to depict a battle between Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia.

"Aristides also painted a Battle with the Persians, a picture which contained one hundred figures, for each of which he was paid at the rate of ten minae by Mnason, the tyrant of Elatea."

Natural history, Book 35, chapter 36.

This is one of three ancient paintings which some scholars believe may have been a model for the "Alexander Mosaic" (125-120 BC) found at Pompeii. The other two contenders are works by Helena of Egypt and Philoxenos of Eretria. However, since none of these paintings have survived, and information concerning their compositions is negligible, theories remain purely conjectural.

His painting of a dying woman with her child at her breast during the siege of a city was sent to Pella by Alexander the Great.

Natural history, Book 35, chapter 36.

Among a number of other paintings by Aristeides mentioned by Pliny were "two fine pictures" to be seen in the Temple of Ceres (see Demeter) at the Circus Maximus, Rome: a Father Liber (Dionysus) and an Artamene. The first (perhaps both) had been looted from Corinth in 146 BC by the consul Lucius Mummius Achaicus, and "the first instance, I conceive, of a foreign painting being publicly exhibited at Rome". Attalus II of Pergamon had offered to pay 6,000 denarii for the work, and for another of his works Attalus is said to have paid 100 talents. Pliny also states that "a Tragedian and a Child, in the Temple of Apollo" (in the 10th region of the city) was later ruined by a botched restoration.

Natural history, Book 35, chapters 8 and 36.
 
Euphranor of Corinth

Ἐυφράνωρ

Painter, sculptor and theorist, 4th century BC
  See Euphranor of Corinth under sculptors.  
Helena of Egypt

Ἑλένη

4th century BC (?)

Daughter of Timonos of Egypt (Τίμωνος τοῦ Αἰγυπτίου).

Helena is known only from a short passage in the New History (Καινή Ιστορία, Kaine Historia) written in the 2nd century AD by Ptolemy Hephaistion (Πτολεμαίου τοῦ Ἡφαιστίωνος, also known as Ptolemaios Chennos, Πτολεμαῖος Χέννος). The work is now lost, but was summarized in the Bibliotheka (Βιβλιοθήκη) by Photios (Φώτιος, circa 810/820 - 893 AD), Patriarch of Constantinople.
  Photios' summary of Ptolemy Hephaistion does not mention when or where Helena lived, only that she was the daughter of Timonos of Egypt and painted a depiction of the Battle of Issos (333 BC) which was exhibited in the Temple of Peace in Rome during the reign of Emperor Vespasian (69-79 AD).

Her Battle of Issos is one of three paintings some modern scholars think may have been the model for the "Alexander Mosaic". The other two are works by attributed by Pliny to Aristeides and Philoxenos.

See the Helena of Egypt page for further details.
 
Mikon the Elder of Athens

Μίκων (Latin, Micon)

Painter and sculptor

Athens, mid 5th century BC.

Son of Phanochos, and a contemporary of Polygnotos of Thasos
  Mikon was closely associated with the painter Polygnotos of Thasos, with whom he decorated the Stoa Poikile (Ποικίλη Στοά, Painted Portico) in the Athenian Agora (Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 35, chapter 35) with paintings including the Battle with the Amazons and perhaps the Battle of Marathon (see Panainos).

Pliny the Elder called Polygnotos and Mikon "the most celebrated painters of Athens", although "Polygnotos was held in the higher esteem of the two", and wrote that they made their black from grape-husks and called it "tryginon" (from τρύξ, grape-husks or wine-lees). (Natural history, Book 35, chapters 25 and 35). He also wrote "Polygnotus and Micon were the first to employ sil [yellow or brown ochre] in painting, but that of Attica solely." (Book 33, chapter 56).

Pausanias reported on paintings by Polygnotos and Mikon in the Anakeion (Ἀνάκειον), the sanctuary of the Dioskouroi on the east slope of the Athens Acropolis.

"The sanctuary of the Dioscuri is ancient. They themselves are represented as standing, while their sons are seated on horses. Here Polygnotus has painted the marriage of the daughters of Leucippus, was a part of the gods' history, but Micon those who sailed with Jason to the Colchians, and he has concentrated his attention upon Acastus and his horses."

Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 18, section 1.

Pausanias also described the myth of Minos, Theseus and Periboea aboard the ship taking the young Athenians to Crete, which Mikon painted for the sanctuary of Theseus in Athens.

Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 17, sections 2-3.

He attributed to "the Athenian painter Mikon" a statue in Olympia of the Athenian athlete Kallias, a winner in the pankration (παγκράτιον), a no-holds-barred mixture of boxing and wrestling:

"Beside the statue of Pulydamas at Olympia stand two Arcadians and one Attic athlete. The statue of the Mantinean, Protolaus the son of Dialces, who won the boxing-match for boys, was made by Pythagoras of Rhegium; that of Narycidas, son of Damaretus, a wrestler from Phigalia, was made by Daedalus of Sicyon; that of the Athenian Callias, a pancratiast, is by the Athenian painter Micon."

Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 6, section 1.

We do not know whether, as in other cases, Pausanias discovered the name of the sculptor from a signature on the statue, or was informed by a local guide. Equally uncertain is whether the Elder or Younger Mikon made the work. Neither painter is mentioned elsewhere as a sculptor, although Pausanias described statues of the tyrant Hiero II at Olympia by a "Mikon, a Syracusan, the son of Niceratus" (Book 6, chapter 12, section 4), thought to be the Mikon "admired for his athletes" mentioned by Pliny the Elder (Natural history, Book 34, chapter 19).
 
Mikon the Younger

Μίκων (Micon Minoris)

Painter

Date unknown, perhaps 5th century BC or Hellenistic period
  Pliny the Elder mentioned another painter named Mikon, known as Mikon the Younger, whose daughter was the painter Timarete (Τιμαρέτη).

"Fuit et alius micon, qui minoris cognomine distinguitur, cuius filia timarete et ipsa pinxit."

"There was also another Micon, distinguished from the first Micon by the surname of 'the younger', and whose daughter Timarete also practised the art of painting."

Natural history, Book 35, chapter 35.

Some scholars therefore believe that he must have lived in the 5th century BC or later, but there is no evidence for this.

Pliny mentioned Timarete as the daughter of Mikon again in chapter 40 (see Pliny's list of female painters on the Helena of Egypt page), and wrote that she "painted a Diana [Artemis] at Ephesus, one of the very oldest panel paintings known". If this is true, it begs the question of the painting's age, and the date of the oldest panel paintings known during Pliny's lifetime. The works of Mikon the Elder and Polygnotos of Thasos and other Late Archaic painters are thought to have been painted on wooden panels.

The oldest known Greek panel paintings today are the four "Pitsa Panels" (or "Pitsa Tablets"), dated around 540-510 BC, found in 1934 in a cave near the village of Pitsa (Πιτσά), close to Sikyon, Corinthia. Now in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens, the largest and best preserved is Inv. No. 16464. Although these votive plaques, dedicated to the Nymphs, are beautifully drawn and colourful works, they are simple in style and composition, and probably not comparable to the more sophisticated works later admired by Roman authors.
 
Nikias

Νικίας

4th century BC

Athens
  Nikias coloured many of the marble statues of Praxiteles.

He has been credited with a painting of Io, Hermes and Argos Panoptes which influenced several other depictions of the subject.
 
Panainos

Πάναινος (Latin, Panaenus)

Mid 5th century BC

Athens

A close colleague and relative of Pheidias, perhaps his nephew (Strabo, Book 8, chapter 3, section 30) or brother (Pliny the Elder, Book 35, chapters 34 and 35, Book 36, chapter 55; Pausanias, Book 5, chapter 11, sections 5-6), although the name may refer to two painters from the same family.
  Panainos worked with the painters Polygnotos of Thasos and Mikon in Athens. The painting of the Battle of Marathon in the Stoa Poikile (painted portico) of the Athenian Agora was attributed to him (Pausanias, Book 5, chapter 11, section 6) and to Polygnotos, who may have assisted him, and also to Mikon.

See: Vin Massaro, Herodotos' account of the Battle of Marathon and the picture in the Stoa Poikile, in L'Antiquité Classique, Tome 47, fasc. 2, 1978, pages 458-475. Brussels, 1978. At Persée.

He painted Pheidias' colossal chryselephantine statue of Zeus in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (around 432 BC), particularly the god's garment, as well "many wonderful paintings" around the temple (Strabo, Geography, Book 8, chapter 3, section 30).

 
Pausanias wrote that Panainos painted mythological scenes on the screens around the throne of the Zeus statue at Olympia:

"The throne is supported not only by the feet, but also by an equal number of pillars standing between the feet. It is impossible to go under the throne, in the way we enter the inner part of the throne at Amyclae. At Olympia there are screens constructed like walls which keep people out.

Of these screens the part opposite the doors is only covered with dark-blue paint; the other parts show pictures by Panaenus. Among them is Atlas, supporting heaven and earth, by whose side stands Heracles ready to receive the load of Atlas, along with Theseus; Perithous, Hellas, and Salamis carrying in her hand the ornament made for the top of a ship's bows; then Heracles' exploit against the Nemean lion, the outrage committed by Ajax on Cassandra, Hippodameia the daughter of Oenomaus with her mother, and Prometheus still held by his chains, though Heracles has been raised up to him. For among the stories told about Heracles is one that he killed the eagle which tormented Prometheus in the Caucasus, and set free Prometheus himself from his chains.

Last in the picture come Penthesileia giving up the ghost and Achilles supporting her; two Hesperides are carrying the apples, the keeping of which, legend says, had been entrusted to them. This Panaenus was a brother of Pheidias; he also painted the picture of the battle of Marathon in the painted portico at Athens."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 11, sections 4-6. At Perseus Digital Library.
 
Philoxenos of Eretria

Φιλόξενος (Latin, Philoxenus)

Late 4th century BC

From Eretria, Euboea

A pupil of Nikomachos (Pliny, 35, 110)
  "Philoxenus of Eretria, who painted for King Cassander a picture representing one of the battles between Alexander and Darius, a work which may bear comparison with any."

Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Book 35, chapter 110.

The painting (probably after 315 BC) is one of three modern scholars think may have been the model for the "Alexander Mosaic".

See also:
Aristeides of Thebes and Helena of Egypt.
 
Protogenes

Πρωτογένης (Protogenes of Caunus)

4th century BC

Pliny the Elder and Plutarch wrote that he was from Kaunos (Καῦνος), between Caria and Lycia, southwestern Anatolia, and later lived in Rhodes. According to the Suidas (pi, 2963 at Suda On Line) he was from Xanthos (Ξάνθος), Lycia. Both cities were under the control of Rhodes as part of the Rhodian Peraia, although from the late 4th century BC, following the Persian occupation, the area was fought over by the successors (Diadochi) of Alexander the Great.

The Suidas also states that he wrote two books: On Graphic Art (Περὶ γραφικῆς) and Figures (σχηματων βιβλία β᾽).

Works by Protogenes and episodes of his life were mentioned by a number of ancient authors, including Aulus Gellius, Cicero, Petronius, Plutarch, Quintilian, Strabo and Pliny the Elder, who dedicated long passages to him in his Natural history (Book 35, chapter 36).

Pliny described him as "a famous painter", and relates that he was an impoverished "ship-decorator" (or painter of ships) until he was fifty. He also wrote of his friendly competition with Apelles, who considered him "fully his equal, or perhaps his superior", and who championed his works in Rhodes, and mentioned that he made bronze statues, listing him among the artists who "made statues of athletes, armed men, hunters, and sacrificers" (Book 34, chapter 19).
  Protogenes is reported to have been a fussy and capricious perfectionist who took a long time to complete his works which, according to Pliny "bore evident marks of unbounded laboriousness and the most minute finish". He did not know "when to take his hand off a picture". Pliny referred to his quest for perfection in his art when he was painting his most famous work depicting the mythical Rhodian hero Ialysos (Ἰάλυσος), which took seven years to complete, and which he painted over four times, "so that when an upper coat might fail, there would be an under one to succeed it". Frustrated that the foam on the mouth of the hero's dog was not realistic enough, he tried to erase it with a sponge, and thus accidentally achieved the effect he been trying to get with a brush and invented a new technique, later used by the painter Nealces.

The beauty, realism, accuracy and perfection of his paintings were also noted by Cicero (Brutus, section 70, see Aetion; Orator, chapter 2, section 5), Petronius Arbiter (Satyricon, section 83, see quote above) and Quintilian (Institutio Oratoria, Book 12, chapter 10).

The Ialysos painting was the subject of an anecdote with several versions, concerning the siege of Rhodes by Demetrios Poliorketes (Δημήτριος Πολιορκητής, the Besieger) in 305 BC (Pliny, Book 35, chapter 36; Plutarch, Demetrius, chapter 22, section 2). The Macedonian general was said to have been so impressed with Protogenes and his work that he spared the painting, which according to Pliny was in the only part of the city vulnerable to attack. In Pliny's version Protogenes lived in a suburb outside the city walls, which became the centre of Demetrius' camp, where the artist continued to work untroubled by the warfare. The besieger gave him a guard and often visited him in his studio. In the version related by Aulus Gellius (Attic Nights, Book 15, chapter 31), Protogenes was already dead by the time Rhodian envoys asked Demetrius to spare the painting.

 
Cicero (Orator, chapter 2, section 5) reported seeing the Ialysos in Rhodes (around 77 BC), and Strabo (Geography, around 20 BC - 23 AD, Book 14, chapter 2, section 5) also records the painting as being there. But by the time of Pliny (Natural history, published 77-79 AD, Book 35, chapter 36) it had been taken to Rome and placed among many other artworks in the Temple of Peace (Templum Pacis), which Plutarch (circa 46-120 AD) claimed was destroyed by a fire: "This painting, then, crowded into the same place with the rest at Rome, the fire destroyed." (Plutarch, Demetrius, chapter 22, section 2)

Another work Pliny said was destroyed by fire in Rome was the result of a playful contest between Protogenes and Apelles, who visited him in Rhodes. It consisted of a panel with three exquisitely fine lines, two painted by Apelles and the other by Protogenes. The work was very popular among Roman art-lovers, perhaps as much for the story behind it as for is delicacy.

"He [Protogenes] thought proper, too, to transmit the panel to posterity, just as it was, and it always continued to be held in the highest admiration by all, artists in particular. I am told that it was burnt in the first fire which took place at Caesar's palace on the Palatine Hill; but in former times I have often stopped to admire it. Upon its vast surface it contained nothing whatever except the three outlines, so remarkably fine as to escape the sight: among the most elaborate works of numerous other artists it had all the appearance of a blank space; and yet by that very fact it attracted the notice of everyone, and was held in higher estimation than any other painting there."

Other works listed by Pliny (all Natural History, Book 35, chapter 36):

Displayed in the Propylaia of the Athens Acropolis, probably in the "Pinakotheke": "where he has painted the fine picture of Paralus and Hammonias, known by some as the Nausicaa, he has added in the side pieces of the picture, by painters called 'parerga', several small ships of war; wishing thereby to show in what department that skill had first manifested itself which had thus reached the citadel of Athens, the scene of his glory."

This is thought to have been an allegorical painting representing two of the sacred Athenian state ships, but was later somehow mistakenly believed to represent Odysseus and Nausicaa, a subject taken from Homer's Odyssey.

"Protogenes executed also, a Cydippe; a Tlepolemus; a portrait of Philiscus, the tragic poet, in an attitude of meditation; an Athlete; a portrait of King Antigonus [father of Demetrios Poliorketes], and one of the mother of Aristotle. It was this philosopher too, who advised him to paint the exploits of Alexander the Great, as being certain to be held in everlasting remembrance. The impulse, however, of his natural disposition, combined with a certain artistic caprice, led him in preference to adopt the various subjects which have just been mentioned. His last works were representations of Alexander and the god Pan. He also executed some figures in bronze, as already273 stated."

Pliny also mentioned a painting of a Satyr holding a pair of pipes, known as the "Anapauomenos" (ἀναπαυόμενος, he that rests, or in repose). Strabo (Geography, Book 14, chapter 2, section 5) wrote that in Rhodes there was a painting by Protogenes depicting a Satyr standing by a pillar on top of which stood a male partridge. The public considered the partridge so realistic that it caused a sensation. The painter was not all happy about the scenes caused and the feared that his Satyr was being ignored, so he simply erased the bird:

"And at this partridge, as would be natural, the people were so agape when the picture had only recently been set up, that they would behold him with wonder but overlook the Satyr, although the latter was a very great success. But the partridge-breeders were still more amazed, bringing their tame partridges and placing them opposite the painted partridge; for their partridges would make their call to the painting and attract a mob of people. But when Protogenes saw that the main part of the work had become subordinate, he begged those who were in charge of the sacred precinct to permit him to go there and efface the partridge, and so he did."
 
Pythagoras of Samos

Πυθαγόρας

Sculptor and painter, 5th century BC

From Samos

Possibly the same person as Pythagoras of Rhegion.
  See Pythagoras of Samos under sculptors.  
Sokrates

Σωκράτης (Latin, Socrates)
     
Turpilius

A Roman painter from a noble Venetian family. The first recorded left-handed painter.

Early Imperial period, 1st century AD

"After this period [2nd century BC], the art [of painting] was no longer practised by men of rank; unless, indeed, we would make reference to Turpilius, in our own times, a native of Venetia, and of equestrian rank, several of whose beautiful works are still in existence at Verona. He painted, too, with his left hand, a thing never known to have been done by any one before."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 35, chapter 7. At Perseus Digital Library.
     
Zeuxis

Ζεῦξις (abbreviation of Ζεύξιππος, Zeuxippos)

5th century BC; born in 464 BC

He was from Heraklea (Ἡράκλεια), although which of the many cities with this name is unknown. Suggestions that he was from Heraclea Lucania in southeast Italy seem unlikely, as this city was only founded in 432 BC.
  One of the most famous ancient Greek painters who also made small ceramic figures (figlina opera).

He was commissioned by Archelaus I of Macedon (ruled 413-399 BC) to decorate the royal palace at the new Macedonian capital Pella.
 
Minoan wall painting of a priestess from Thera at My Favourite Planet   Detail of a Minoan wall painting from Thera at My Favourite Planet
Detail of a fragment of a Minoan fresco of a "priestess".

17th century BC (Late Cycladic I). From Room 5, upper floor,
West House, Akrotiri, Thera (Θήρα, modern Santorini), Greece.

The painting depicts a woman walking to the left, holding a censer (incense burner).
She wears a long hieratic garment, two wide bracelets in bands of blue, yellow and
white, perhaps representing silver gold and bone or ivory, and a blue (for silver)
ribbon-form necklace. The ochre (perhaps for gold) wheel-shaped earring, tought
to be a sun symbol, is unique in art from Thera and the Cretan-Mycenaean region.

Mykonos Archaeological Museum.
The Diver fresco in Paestum, Italy at My Favourite Planet

Detail of the Diver fresco in Paestum.

Around 480-470 BC. A painted limestone slab from the Tomb of the Diver,
Paestum (Poseidonia), Campania, southern Italy (Magna Graecia).

National Archaeological Museum of Paestum.
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Mosaicists
Name / Biographical information   Works / References  
Amiteion

(or Amiteios)

3rd century BC
  A late third century AD mosaic, discovered in a large Roman villa at Suweydie, near Baalbek, Lebanon, signed "ΑΜΙΤΕΙΩΝ ΕΠΟΙΕΙ" (Amiteion epoiei, Amiteion created it), shows the muse Calliope surrounded by subtitled portrait medallions of the Athenian philosopher Socrates and the Seven Sages: Solon of Athens ("nothing in exess"), Thales of Miletus ("a guarantor ruins himself"), Bias of Priene ("most people are bad"), Cleobulus of Lindos ("moderation is best"), Periander of Corinth ("practice makes perfect"), Pittacus of Mytilene ("know your opportunity") and Chilon of Sparta ("know thyself").

See: Peter Green, A concise history of ancient Greece, illustration 127, page 101. Thames and Hudson, London, 1973.
 
Dioskourides of Samos

Διοσκουρίδης Σάμιος (Latin, Dioscurides)

Thought to be working in the late 2nd to early 1st century BC.
  Two finely-detailed mosaics found in the "Villa of Cicero", Pompeii, are signed "ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡΙΔΗΣ ΣΑΜΙΟΣ ΕΠΟΙΗΣΕ" (Dioskourides Samios epoese, Dioskourides of Samos created [this]).

For further information and photos, see the Dioskourides of Samos page.
 
Gnoseis

Γνῶσεις

Worked in Pella, 4th century BC
  The Stag Hunt mosaic floor in the House of the Abduction of Helen, Pella, Greece, signed "ΓΝΩΣΕΙΣ ΕΠΟΗΣΕΝ" (Gnoseis epoesen, Gnoseis created this). The earliest known signature on a mosaic.  
Hephaistion

Ἡφαιστίων

Worked in Pergamon, 2nd century BC
  Hellenistic floor mosaic, mid 2nd century BC, discovered in Palace V, Pergamon, Turkey, signed "ΗΦΑΙΣΤΙΩΝ ΕΠΟΙΕΙ" (Hephaistion epoiei, Hephaistion created it).

Pergamon Museum, Berlin.
 
Sosos

Σῶσος (Latin, Sosus)

Worked in Pergamon, 2nd century BC
  Sosos is the only mosaic artist named by an ancient author. Pliny the Elder praised his work:

"Pavements are an invention of the Greeks, who also practised the art of painting them, till they were superseded by mosaics. In this last branch of art, the highest excellence has been attained by Sosus, who laid, at Pergamus, the mosaic pavement known as the 'asarotos oecos': from the fact that he there represented, in small squares of different colours, the remnants of a banquet lying upon the pavement, and other things which are usually swept away with the broom, they having all the appearance of being left there by accident. There is a dove also, greatly admired, in the act of drinking, and throwing the shadow of its head upon the water; while other birds are to be seen sunning and pluming themselves, on the margin of a drinking-bowl."

Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Book 36, chapter 60, section 25.

No surviving work by Sosos has yet been identified, but Roman period imitations of his "asarotos oikos" (unswept house; literally, The house that has no sweeping), usually known as "the unswept room", still exist.
 
Zosimos

Ζώσιμος

Working around 200 AD

Perhaps Zosimos of Samosata
  An inscribed mosaic panel signed by Zosimos (Ζώσιμος), discovered in 2000 at ancient Zeugma on the Euphrates (Ζεῦγμα, near Gaziantep, southern Turkey), and dated to around 200 AD, shows a scene from Menander's play Synaristosai. He may have been the Zosimos of Samosata whose signature is on a mosaic of Aphrodite on a shell and two Tritons, also found at Zeugma. See the note on the Dioskourides of Samos page.  
A mosaic from Pompeii depicting the three Graces at My Favourite Planet

A mosaic emblema (panel) from Pompeii depicting the three Graces.

From the garden of the Casa di Apollo (VI, 7, 23), Pompeii.

National Archaeological Museum, Naples. Inv. No. 1004.
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Architects
Name / Biographical information Works / References
Chersiphron

Χερσίφρων (Chersiphron of Gnosus; Latin, Chersiphrone Gnosio)

From Knossos, Crete

6th century BC

In some English editions of Vitruvius, his name appears as "Ctesiphon". This is due to an error which appeared in Joseph Gwilt's 1826 translation. In Latin editions the name is Chersiphron.
  According to Strabo, Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, Chersiphron was the principal architect of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (the Artemision, Ἀρτεμίσιον), with his son Metagenes (Μεταγένης). He is thought to to have designed the Archaic temple, on which construction began around 550 BC, following the destruction of the earlier temple in the 7th century BC, probably during Cimmerian invasions and/or by flooding of the site. It was partly financed by King Croesus of Lydia (Κροῖσος, ruled circa 560-547 BC), who paid for most of the columns and donated a number of golden cows (Herodotus, Histories, Book 1, chapter 92).

"For in four places only are the temples embellished with work in marble, and from that circumstance the places are very celebrated, and their excellence and admirable contrivance is pleasing to the gods themselves. The first is the temple of Diana [Artemis] at Ephesus, of the Ionic order, built by Chersiphron of Gnosus, and his son Metagenes, afterwards completed by Demetrius, a priest of Diana, and Paeonius the Ephesian.

Vitruvius, The ten books on architecture,
Book 7
, Introduction, section 16. At LacusCurtius.

Vitruvius also mentioned that Chersiphron and Metagenes wrote a treatise on the Ionic order in the temple:

"... Silenus published a book on the proportions of Doric structures; Theodorus, on the Doric temple of Juno [Hera] which is in Samos; Chersiphron and Metagenes, on the Ionic temple at Ephesus which is Diana's..."

Vitruvius, The ten books on architecture,
Book 7
, Introduction, section 12. At LacusCurtius.


"Chersiphron was the first architect of the temple of Diana; another afterwards enlarged it, but when Herostratus set fire to it, the citizens constructed one more magnificent."

Strabo, Geography, Book 14, chapter 1, sections 22-23. At Perseus Digital Library.

Chersiphron's temple was burnt down by Herostratus in July 356 BC, and was replaced by yet another, grander temple, one of the largest in the Graeco-Roman world, which became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The designer, according to Gaius Julius Solinus (Polyhistor, 40, 2) was Deinokrates of Rhodes (Δεινοκράτης ὁ Ῥόδιος), referred to by Strabo as Cheirokrates (Geography, Book 14, chapter 1, section 23).

Chersiphron is also named as the principal architect of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus by Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 7, chapter 38, and Book 36, chapter 21), and Strabo (Geography, Book 14, chapter 1).
 
Deinokrates (or Stasikrates)

Δεινοκράτης

Sculptor, architect and city planner

4th - 3rd century BC

Sculptor, architect and city planner

From Macedonia or Rhodes

Thought to be the same artist mentioned but named differently by ancient authors:

Cheirokrates; Deinokrates or Dinocrates, Deinokrates of Rhodes; Dinochares; Diocles of Rhegium ; Stasikrates or Stasicrates; Timochares.
  This section is currently being rewritten.

A longer article about Deinokrates
will be appearing on a separate page.
 
Hermodoros of Salamis

‛Ερμόδωρος ο Σαλαμίνιος (Latin, Hermodoro Salaminio)

From Salamis (Σαλαμίς), Cyprus

Thought to have been working in Rome around 146-102 BC.
  The evidence for the life and work of Hermodoros is even thinner than that for many other ancient Greek artists. The key reference is at least second hand, being a sentence attributed to the Roman biographer Cornelius Nepos (circa 110-25 BC) quoted by the 6th century AD Byzantine grammarian Priscian (Priscianus Caesariensis):

"Nepos: aedis Martis est in Circo Flaminio architectata ab Hermodoro Salaminio."

"Nepos: The temple of Mars is in the Circus of Flaminius, the architect Hermodoros of Salamis."

Priscian, Institutiones grammaticae (Foundations of grammar), completed around 526 AD.

See: Martin Hertz’s edition of Heinrich Keil, Grammatici Latini, Volume II, Prisciani, Institutiones grammaticae, Libri I-XII, Liber VIII, 17, page 383. B. G. Teubner, Leipzig, 1855. At the Internet Archive.

This temple of Mars stood at the northwest end of the Circus of Flaminius, on the Campus Martius (Field of Mars) in Rome. Consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaecus (or Callaicus) vowed to build a temple dedicated to to Mars in 138 BC, and construction began after 135 BC, financed with booty from his military campaign in Hispania. It was dedicated in 132 BC during Callaecus' triumph. Its remains lie beneath the church of San Salvatore in Campo. Pliny the Elder (Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4) mentioned a colossal marble statue of seated Mars in the temple (see Skopas).

 
When defining the form of peripteral temples, the architect Vitruvius provided as an example the temple of Jupiter Stator in the Portico of Metellus (later known as the Porticus Octaviae) in Rome, designed by "Hermodorus":

"A temple will be peripteral that has six columns in front and six in the rear, with eleven on each side including the corner columns. Let the columns be so placed as to leave a space, the width of an intercolumniation, all round between the walls and the rows of columns on the outside, thus forming a walk round the cella of the temple, as in the cases of the temple of Jupiter Stator by Hermodorus in the Portico of Metellus, and the Marian temple of Honour and Valour constructed by Mucius, which has no portico in the rear."

Vitruvius, The ten books on architecture, Book 3, chapter 2, section 5. At Perseus Digital Library.

The name of the architect in manuscripts of Vitruvius' work has been read differently by various scholars, and in early printed editions it appears as "Hermodi" (Hermodius or Hermodus). The emendation or "correction" to Hermodorus, made by the French classical scholar Adrianus Turnebus (Adrien Turnèbe or Tournebeuf, 1512-1565), now appears to be generally accepted, perhaps partly on the strength of the sentence in Priscian and the mention of a Hermodorus by Cicero (see below).

The Porticus Octaviae, in the area of the Circus of Flaminius, on the southern side of the Campus Martius, was originally named the Portico of Metellus (Porticus Metelli), and was built in 146 BC by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus (circa 210-115 BC), following his victories in the Macedonian Wars (see the photos and information on the Alexander the Great page). Probably also financed by war booty, its colonnades surrounded the temples of Jupiter Stator and Juno Regina ("the two temples without inscriptions"). Since Vitruvius was using the temple of Jupiter as an example of a peripteral temple (probably because it would have been familiar to his Roman readers), he did not mention who designed the temple of Juno or the portico itself.

At some unknown time statues of Jupiter and Juno by Polykles and Dionysios were placed in the temples (Pliny, Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4; see Polykles), but we are not told when they were made, or whether they were created in Rome or brought from Greece. The Temple of Jupiter also contained an ivory statue of Jupiter by Pasiteles (Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4).

Writing on oratory Cicero (106-43 BC) asked a "what if" question, inviting his readers to imagine the famous orator Marcus Antonius (83-30 BC) speaking as the defence lawyer for the famous dock builder Hermodorus. This does not necessarily mean that the two were contemporaries.

"Nor, if, as is said, Philo, the famous architect, who built an arsenal for the Athenians, gave that people an eloquent account of his work, is it to be imagined that his eloquence proceeded from the art of the architect, but from that of the orator. Or, if our friend Marcus Antonius had had to speak for Hermodorus on the subject of dock-building, he would have spoken, when he had learned the case from Hermodorus, with elegance and copiousness, drawn from an art quite unconnected with dock-building."

John Selby Watson (translator and editor), Cicero on oratory and orators, De Oratore, or, On the character of the orator, Book 1, Chapter IV, pages 21-22. Harper and Brothers, New York, 1860. At the Internet Archive.

From these three mentions of one or more men named Hermodorus, two as architect and on as dock builder, it has been suggested that a Greek Cypriot architect named Hermodoros of Salamis was working in Rome in the second half of the second century BC, and was apparently kept busy. As well as the temple of Mars and the Jupiter Stator he may have also designed the adjacent temple of Juno Regina and the surrounding portico. As a dock builder he may have designed the Navalia, a port and arsenals on the left bank of the river Tiber. It has also been suggested that he may have designed the circular Temple of Hercules Invictus (Hercules Victor) at the Forum Boarium in Rome (see below).
 
The circular Temple of Hercules Victor, Rome at My Favourite Planet

The circular Temple of Hercules Victor, Rome. 2nd century BC.

The Temple of Hercules Invictus (Temple of Hercules Victor; Italian, Tempio di Ercole Vincitore) is on the west side of the Piazza della Bocca della Verita, across the road from the Arch of Janus and the Arcus Argentariorum, all of which stand within the site of the Forum Boarium, the ancient cattle market. It was formerly believed to be the Temple of Vesta until the discovery of the base of a cult statue with a dedicatory inscription to Hercules Olivarius, the patron god of the corporation of olearii (oil merchants).

It was founded in the second half of the 2nd century BC by either a Roman merchant or Lucius Mummius Achaicus, the politician and general who defeated the Achaean League and plundered and destroyed Corinth in 146 BC. The architect may have been Greek, perhaps Hermodoros of Salamis, who is thought to have been working in Rome during this period. 14.8 metres in diameter, the temple was built entirely of Pentelic marble (from Mount Pendeli, Athens), with a circular cella surrounded by a ring of 20 fluted Corinthian columns, 10.66 metres tall. It is the oldest surviving marble building in Rome. It was damaged in the 1st century AD, probably during the flood of 15 AD, and restored by Emperor Tiberius (reigned 14-37 AD) who replaced ten of the columns and capitals with white Luni marble. The original entablature and roof have not survived, and one of the columns at the back of the temple is missing.

Pliny the Elder mentioned famous paintings by the playwright Pacuvius in the Temple. Since he used the past tense, they may have been destroyed at the time of the damage to the temple.

"Next in celebrity were the paintings of the poet Pacuvius, in the Temple of Hercules, situated in the Cattle Market. He was a son of the sister of Ennius, and the fame of the art was enhanced at Rome by the success of the artist on the stage."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 35, chapter 7.

In a local version of the story of Herakles' eighth labour, the hero passed through Rome with the cattle he had stolen from Geryon. The monster Cacus took some of the cattle and hid them in a nearby cave. Herakles killed Cacus and retrieved the cattle, and to celebrate his victory sacrificed a number of bulls at or near the site of the Forum Boarium. The Great Altar (Ara Maximus) of Hercules Invictus is thought to have stood in the forum, perhaps in the precinct of the nearby church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, where a colossal gilded bronze statue of Hercules was discovered (Palazzo dei Conservatori, Capitoline Museums, Rome. Inv. No. MC 1265).

It is thought that there were two temples of Hercules at or around the Forum Boarium. The question of the location of the temple or temples of Hercules here, mentioned by ancient authors (Pliny, Servius, Macrobius), remains a matter of debate. One of the temples may have been the building demolished by Pope Sixtus IV, or at the nearby Circus Maximus.

This temple was converted into the church of Santo Stefano alle Carozze (Saint Stephen of the carriages) during the Middle Ages (before 1132), and rededicated to Santa Maria del Sole (Saint Mary of the Sun) in the 17th century. The spaces between the columns were closed by walls, some with windows, and a bell tower was added to the front of the roof. It was restored 1809-1810, during the Napoleonic occupation of Rome (1809-1814), by the architect Guiseppe Valadier (1762-1839) and the archaeologist and lawyer Carlo Fea (1753-1836). The later additions, such as the walls between the columns, were removed and the remains of original marble walls around the cella were repaired, partly with marble found around the site, as well as mortar and brick. During excavations carried out at the time of the restoration the original entrance was discovered.

The temple and the neighbouring Temple of Portunus (or Fortuna Virilis), the Roman god of harbours, are not open to the public, but may be visited with a guide or escort by making an appointment at least 24 hours in advance.

Information and reservations, Tel: 06 399 67700.

See www.archeoroma.beniculturali.it
 
Iktinos

Ικτίνος (Latin, Ictinus)

Architect and sculptor

Mid 5th century BC

Athens
  Iktinos and Kallikrates designed the Parthenon in Athens, built between 447 and 438 BC (Plutarch, Parallel lives, Pericles, chapter 13, section 4).

Vitruvius mentioned that he wrote a book about the Parthenon with a certain Carpion (Karpion, Καρπιον ?), otherwise unknown, (Ten Books on Architecture, Book 7, Introduction, section 12), and that he completed the Telesterion, the temple of Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis, in the Doric style (section 16).

He was also the architect of the Temple of Apollo Epikourios (Επικούριος, the Helper) at Bassai, in the territory of Phigalia, Arcadia, in the Peloponnese. Built between 450 and 400 BC, the temple featured a Doric exterior, an Ionic interior, and the earliest known Corinthian column (according to Vitruvius, Book 4, chapter 1, invented by Kallimachos) at the rear of the cella. It is aligned north-south, rather than east-west usual for Greek temples, with its main entrance at the north end. This is thought to be due to the limited space on the mountainous terrain.

"Phigalia is surrounded by mountains, on the left by the mountain called Cotilius, while on the right is another, Mount Elaius, which acts as a shield to the city. The distance from the city to Mount Cotilius is about forty stades. On the mountain is a place called Bassae, and the temple of Apollo the Helper, which, including the roof, is of stone.

Of the temples in the Peloponnesus, this might be placed first after the one at Tegea for the beauty of its stone and for its symmetry. Apollo received his name from the help he gave in time of plague, just as the Athenians gave him the name of Averter of Evil [Alexikakos, see Kalamis] for turning the plague away from them.

It was at the time of the war between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians that he also saved the Phigalians, and at no other time; the evidence is that of the two surnames of Apollo, which have practically the same meaning, and also the fact that Ictinus, the architect of the temple at Phigalia, was a contemporary of Pericles, and built for the Athenians what is called the Parthenon."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 8, chapter 41, sections 7-9. At Perseus Digital Library.

The site was first excavated in 1811-1812 by Charles Robert Cockerell and his companions (see the Niobe page).

Pausanias (Book 8, chapter 30, sections 2-4) reported that the twelve foot high (4 metres) bronze cult statue of Apollo Epikourios was later taken from Bassai and set up in the sanctuary of Lycaean Zeus, in the agora of Megalopolis, founded around 370 BC (see Demeter and Persephone part 2).

The classical archaeologist and architectural historian William Bell Dinsmoor argued that three sculptures depicting the Niobids, now in Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek, Copenhagen and the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome, may have decorated the south pediment of the Bassai temple, and that they may have been looted from there by the Romans. See the Niobe page.
 
The Temple of Apollo Epikourios at Bassai by Edward Dodwell at My Favourite Planet

The ruins of the Temple of Apollo Epikourios at Bassai (Βάσσαι), Arcadia, designed by Iktinos.
It has been suggested that the sculptor Paionios of Mende may have worked on the temple's
interior frieze, although this has been refuted. Surviving parts of the frieze, now in the British
Museum, depict an amazonomachy (a battle between Athenians and Amazons) and a
centauromachy (a battle between Lapiths and Centaurs).

Detail of a colour engraving after a drawing made in February 1806 by the Irish painter and
traveller Edward Dodwell (1767-1832). He visited Bassai six years before the temple's
surviving sculptures were taken off by Charles Robert Cockerell and his companions.

Source: Edward Dodwell, Views in Greece, page 115 (plate 28).
30 plates (unnumbered), with descriptions in French and English.
Rodwell and Martin, London, 1821. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.

Dodwell described the temple and his visit in:

Edward Dodwell, A classical and topographical tour through Greece,
during the years 1801, 1805, and 1806
, Volume 2
(of 2), pages 384-389.
Rodwell and Martin, London, 1819. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.

See also: Charles Robert Cockerell, The Temples of Jupiter Panhellenius
at Aegina, and of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae near Phigaleia in Arcadia
.
John Weale, London, 1860. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.
Mnesikles

Μνησικλής

Sculptor and architect, 5th century BC

Athens
  According to Plutarch, Mnesikles designed the Propylaia of the Athens Acropolis, and he may have also been the architect of the Erechtheion.

Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Pericles, 13.7-8.

Nothing is known of his life or other work.
 
Paionios of Ephesus

Παιώνιος (Paionios; Latin, Paeonius Ephesius)

Second half of the 4th century BC
  According to Vitruvius, Paionios and Demetrius completed the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus begun by Chersiphron of Knossos and Metagenes, and the Temple of Apollo at Didyma (near Miletus) with Daphnis of Miletus.

"For in four places only are the temples embellished with work in marble, and from that circumstance the places are very celebrated, and their excellence and admirable contrivance is pleasing to the gods themselves. The first is the temple of Diana [Artemis] at Ephesus, of the Ionic order, built by Chersiphron of Gnosus, and his son Metagenes, afterwards completed by Demetrius, a priest of Diana, and Paeonius the Ephesian.

The second is the temple of Apollo at Miletus, also of the Ionic order, built by the above-named Paeonius, and Daphnis, the Milesian."

Vitruvius, The ten books on architecture,
Book 7
, Introduction, section 16. English translation at Bill Thayer's LacusCurtius website, University of Chicago.

The most widely available translation by Morris Hicky Morgan (Harvard University Press, 1914) has "Paeonius the Milesian", although the Latin text states "Paeonius Ephesius". See: Vitruvius, de Architectura, Liber VII, Praefatio, section 16. At LacusCurtius.

For further discussion of the architects associated with the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, see the Deinokrates page (currently being rewritten).

Building of the enormous oracular temple of Apollo at Didyma began around 300 BC, and although much of the structure was complete by around 165 BC, work continued intermittently over the following centuries and it was never finished (see a brief history of the temple on the Medusa page).
 
Philon of Eleusis

Φίλων

Philon, son of Exekestides of Eleusis
(Φίλωνος Ἐξηκεστίδου Ἐλευσινίου)

4th century BC, around 350-305 BC

Athens
  According to Vitruvius, Philon wrote a book (or books) on the proportions of temples and the naval arsenal at the port of Piraeus, and added a portico to the Telesterion, the temple of Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis.

Ten Books on Architecture, Book 7, Introduction, sections 12 and 16-17. At Project Gutenberg.

Philon is credited with the building of the Piraeus arsenal, known as the Skeuotheke (Σκευοθήκη), built for the storage of tackle and rigging for warships around 347-329 BC BC, during the administration of Lycurgus (Λυκοῦργος, Lykourgos; circa 390-324 BC).

He is mentioned by Cicero (106-43 BC) as "the famous architect, who built an arsenal for the Athenians" (Cicero on oratory and orators, Book 1, chapter 14, pages 21-22, at the Internet Archive).

Pliny the Elder mentions that "Philon, likewise, was highly esteemed for making the Arsenal at Athens, which was able to receive a thousand ships" (Pliny's Natural History, Book 7, chapter 37, at the Internet Archive). According to another version of the passage the number was 400 ("Philon Athenis armamentario CD navium", The natural history, Liber VII, xxxvii, 125, at LacusCurtius), and in other translations the arsenal becomes a basin or dockyard (The natural history, Book 7, chapter 38, at Perseus Digital Library).

 
Building accounts of the arsenal, Inscription IG II (2) 1668 (Epigraphical Museum, Athens, Inv. No. EM 12538), dated 347/346 BC, name "Philon, son of Exekestides of Eleusis" (Φίλωνος Ἐξηκεστίδου Ἐλευσινίου) and a certain "Euthydomos, son of Demetrios of Melite" as responsible for the building specifications (see photo below).

See:
Inscription of public nature (EM 12538)
at nam.culture.gr.

Building work was suspended 340/339 BC because of the costs of the military campaign against Philip II of Macedon. The arsenal was probably destroyed in 86 BC by Lucius Cornelius Sulla during the Roman conquest of Athens. The remains of the building were rediscoverd at the northwest corner of Zea Harbour, Piraeus during excavations in 1988-1989.

See: Ernest Arthur Gardner, Ancient Athens, pages 557-559. Macmillan, 1907. At the Internet Archive.

David H. Conwell, Connecting a city to the sea: The history of the Athenian Long Walls, pages 150-151. Brill, Leiden, 2008.

The cella of the Telesterion at Eleusis had been enlarged in the Doric style by Iktinos in the mid 5th century BC. Around 317-307 BC Philon added a portico of twelve Doric columns, known as the Prostoon or Philonian Stoa, commissioned by Demetrius of Phaleron (Δημήτριος ὁ Φαληρεύς, circa 350-280 BC), who had been appointed to govern Athens by the Macedonian king Cassander. Epigraphic evidence (building accounts, Inscription IG II (2) 1673) indicates that Philon was not responsible for the original design or initial construction. The foundations, crepidoma and at least part of the colonnade were completed by a certain Athenodoros of Melite before Philon took over construction around 317 BC.

See: Paul T. Keyser, Georgia L. Irby-Massie, Encyclopedia of Ancient Natural Scientists: The Greek Tradition and its Many Heirs, "Philon of Eleusis". Routledge, 2008.

See also an inscription from Eleusis referring to the manufacture of bronze dowels for the columns of the Stoa of Philon in Demeter and Persephone part 1.
 
The building specifications for the Piraeus arsenal at My Favourite Planet

A marble stele inscribed with the specifications (syngraphai)
for the the construction of the Piraeus Skeuotheke (arsenal),
entrusted to the architects Euthydomos and Philon of Eleusis.

347/346 BC.

Epigraphical Museum, Athens. Inv. No. EM 12538.
Inscription IG II (2) 1668.
Polykleitos

Πολυμεδες Αργειος

Mid-late 4th century BC

The name Polykleitos as an architect is mentioned only by Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 27, section 5).
  Pausanias wrote that Polykleitos designed the tholos (a round building) and the great theatre in the Asklepieion at Epidauros. It has been suggested that Pausanias may have been referring to the sculptor Polykleitos the Younger, thought to have been the son of Polykleitos the Elder (Polykleitos of Argos). However, the theatre is thought to have been built around 340-320 BC (or later), which is considered too late for the dates assumed for the lifetimes of father and son.

"The Epidaurians have a theatre within the sanctuary, in my opinion very well worth seeing. For while the Roman theatres are far superior to those anywhere else in their splendour, and the Arcadian theatre at Megalopolis is unequalled for size, what architect could seriously rival Polycleitus in symmetry and beauty? For it was Polycleitus who built both this theatre and the circular building. Within the grove are a temple of Artemis, an image of Epione, a sanctuary of Aphrodite and Themis, a race-course consisting, like most Greek race-courses, of a bank of earth, and a fountain worth seeing for its roof and general splendour."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 27, section 5.
 
Pytheos

Πυθέος (Pytheos of Priene, also referred to as Pythius or Pythis)

Architect, author on architecture and sculptor

4th century BC

A contemporary of Bryaxis, Leochares, Skopas and Timotheos.
  A "Pythis" is mentioned by Pliny the Elder as one of the artists who worked on the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, around 355-350 BC, with Bryaxis, Leochares, Skopas and Timotheos. According to Pliny, he made a bronze chariot which stood on top of the pyramidal roof of the monument, and perhaps designed the pyramid itself (see drawing below).

"A fifth artist also took part in the work; for above the Pteron [colonnaded wings of the monument] there is a pyramid erected, equal in height to the building below, and formed of four and twenty steps, which gradually taper upwards towards the summit; a platform, crowned with a representation of a four-horse chariot by Pythis. This addition makes the total height of the work one hundred and forty feet."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4. See Bryaxis

 
Vitruvius mentioned Pytheos as an "ancient" architect who designed the Temple of Athena in Priene, Ionia, as author of a book about the temple of Athena at Priene, and co-author with Satyrus of a book on the Mausoleum. From the latter reference it is thought that Pytheos and Satyrus designerd the Mausoleum. It is also thought that Pliny and Vitruvius were referring to the same person.

"But perhaps to the inexperienced it will seem a marvel that human nature can comprehend such a great number of studies and keep them in the memory. Still, the observation that all studies have a common bond of union and intercourse with one another, will lead to the belief that this can easily be realized. For a liberal education forms, as it were, a single body made up of these members. Those, therefore, who from tender years receive instruction in the various forms of learning, recognize the same stamp on all the arts, and an intercourse between all studies, and so they more readily comprehend them all.

This is what led one of the ancient architects, Pytheos, the celebrated builder of the temple of Minerva [Athena] at Priene, to say in his Commentaries that an architect ought to be able to accomplish much more in all the arts and sciences than the men who, by their own particular kinds of work and the practice of it, have brought each a single subject to the highest perfection. But this is in point of fact not realized."

Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 1, chapter 1, section 12.

"It appears, then, that Pytheos made a mistake by not observing that the arts are each composed of two things, the actual work and the theory of it."

Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 1, chapter 1, section 15.

"Some of the ancient architects said that the Doric order ought not to be used for temples, because faults and incongruities were caused by the laws of its symmetry. Arcesius and Pytheos said so, as well as Hermogenes."

Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 4, chapter 3, section 1.

"(Afterwards Silenus published a book on the proportions of Doric structures ...) Pytheos, on the Ionic fane of Minerva which is at Priene ... on the Mausoleum, Satyrus and Pytheos who were favoured with the greatest and highest good fortune."

Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 7, Introduction, section 12.

The Temple of Athena Polias in Priene was partly financed by Alexander the Great, attested by an inscription on a marble wall block from the temple's ante, now in the British Museum.
 
A reconstruction drawing of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus at My Favourite Planet

A reconstruction drawing of the south side of the
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, built around 355-350 BC.

Drawing by the German architect and archaeologist Friedrich Adler (1827-1908).

Source: Atlas zur Zeitschrift für Bauwesen, Jahrgang 50, Blatt 3.
Ministerium der öffentlichen Arbeiten. Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn, Berlin, 1900.
Skopas

Σκόπας (Latin, Scopas)

Sculptor and architect, circa 420-330 BC.
  According to Pausanias, Skopas was the architect of the temple of Athena Alea in Tegea, Arcadia.

See Skopas in the sculptors section.
 
Greek gold foil relief of a round dance, 7th century BC at My Favourite Planet

Greek gold foil relief of a round dance. 7th century BC.

Altes Museum, Berlin.
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Notes, references and links
As ever, comments, criticisms, suggestions
and contributions to this project are welcome.

Please get in contact.

1. Ancient Greek artists - a work in progress

Although there is an abundance of ancient Greek pottery in world museums and collections, very few original sculptures, paintings or mosaics by ancient Greek artists have survived, and most works are known from Roman period copies. The artists seldom signed their works, and many signatures on statues and bases are questionable or were later forgeries.

Several ancient writers, including Pausanias, Plutarch, Pliny the Elder and Lucian, mention artworks and name artists who were presumably well-known to the educated readers of their time, but many remain a puzzle to modern scholars. Since the Renaissance historians and archaeologists have attempted to identify the makers and origins of extant works of art, often causing a great deal of debate and controversy in the academic world.

The arrangements of book, chapter and section of the works of ancient authors varies in different modern published editions and online versions. We shall attempt, where possible, to refer to a single source for each author and provide links to the respective passages online.

We will also provide links to information and images of artists and works on this and other websites, as well as bibliographic details for modern publications. As a start, see the list of Authors and works cited below.

2. Ancient Greek pottery

Because of the large numbers of surviving ancient Greek "vases", discovered and collected since at least the 15th century across an enormous geographical area (from across Europe, all around the Mediterranean and into Central Asia), the subject has been studied and written about by many scholars. It is therefore not surprising that there are many theories and a lot of specialized terminology and jargon, which we are unable to deal with in detail here.

Pottery has been described as "indestructable" - at least the baked clay substance - but most often only shards or smashed ancient ceramic objects have been found, and where possible fragments have been carefully restored. Still, it is surprising how many have remained intact, usually those buried as grave goods or as votive offerings to deities, or even deliberately hidden with other objects (coins, valuables, statues, etc) in stashes at times of crisis by owners who believed they may return to recover their possessions. Many pots have astoundingly retained their lustre, colours and painted details over thousands of years. In Sicilian archaeological museums such as Catania, Syracuse, Gela and Argigento, for example, the vast majority of exhibits are vases, many in excellent condition.

Pottery has been made and traded since Neolithic times, for basic daily use, special communal and religious functions, as jewellery and decoration, and for pleasure. From the basic shapes of early ceramics, makers experimented to produce particular forms for practical and aesthetic purposes. Apart from vessels for storage, eating and drinking, there were also ceramic plaques, tiles, bricks, beads, toys, statues, figurines and reliefs (see, for example, a painted Corinthian ceramic pinax, 630-610 BC, and a Campana plaque, 1st century AD). Decoration also evolved from simple indents and grooves made with fingers and thumbs and incisions scratched with sticks, to exquisitely drawn, painted and glazed works of art.

However, since the field of ceramic objects in general is so vast, many scholars of ancient Greek pottery confine themselves to the "vases", which include vessels such as amphorae and kraters (there are over 24 main basic shapes with numerous variations). The continuity of development in form and decoration of Greek pottery can now be charted, particularly from the Archaic period (8th - 5th centuries BC) onwards, and especially in the case "Attic" pottery from Athens, much of which was made for export around the Mediterranean.

Unlike sculptors, painters and architects, potters and vase painters were not named or praised by ancient authors. A small number of vases were signed by the potter, the painter or both, so that those responsible for unsigned pots can sometimes be identified by examining style, form, materials and finish in comparison to signed vessels. In the case where a painter's name is unknown, a name is often given by scholars based on personal idiosyncrasies evident in one or more pieces, the potter for whom they worked (e.g. the Sosias Painter, who worked for Sosias the potter), the current location of an exemplary work (in a collection or museum, for example the Berlin Painter) or a particular subject (e.g. Orpheus Painter). This system was devised by the Oxford-based scholar Sir John Davidson Beazley (1885–1970), who identified around 500 potters, vase painters, groups, and workshops. The key pottery vessel from which the name of the painter has been identified is known as the "name vase".

A name given by scholars to an unidentified artist in any medium is often referred to as the "Notname" (provisional name), from the German word Not, meaning emergency.

The identification of the date and place of manufacture of ceramics is based mainly on the types of clay and decorative materials (e.g. colours) used, the forms of the objects and the kinds of decoration. From the Archaic period vases were produced commercially in great numbers, especially in Corinth, Athens and Magna Graecia (southern Italy). Particular types of images and motifs were apparently popular among painters and customers in various areas at different periods.

Figural subjects included mythological and religious themes, as well as scenes of religious ritual, marriages, funerals, sport, war, theatrical performances and various aspects of daily life. Many images are detailed, graphic and sometimes dramatic, while others are more general and to the modern observer vague. A vast number of vase paintings appear to us more prosaic, mass-produced stock images of heads of humans or horses, standing or seated figures and similar isolated subjects. Although the significance of these is mostly lost on us today, they provide experts with valuable evidence concerning potters and painters, as well as trends in taste and production. Having studied thousands of such vases, the classical pottery expert Arthur Dale Trendall, paraphrasing Mary Tudor, complained, "when I die, they will find, engraved on my heart, 'two draped youths'." *

* D. Williams, Dale Trendall: The eye of an eagle, BICS 41, 1996, page 16. Quoted by Michael Turner, The Australian Archaeological Institute at Athens, in his review of Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, Deutschland, Band 76, 1. Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2005.08.30.
 
An Apulian ceramic flask in the form of a dolphin leaping over the waves at My Favourite Planet

An askos (ceramic flask) in the form of a dolphin leaping over the waves,
with a ring-shaped handle on the left side (not visible in photo).

Made in Apulia, Magna Graecia (southern Italy) around 350-330 BC. Excavated at
Ruvo di Puglia (Bari), Italy. Height 9 cm, length 7.5 cm, width: 5.5 cm. weight 130 grams.

British Museum. Inv. No. GR 1856.12-26.64 (Vase G 165).
From the collection bequeathed by Sir William Temple to the museum in 1856.
An Apulian askos in the form of a dolphin in Dresden at My Favourite Planet

An askos in the form of a dolphin leaping over the waves,
with a ring-shaped handle on the left side. Beneath the base
is the Greek inscription ΔΑΣΤΑΣ ΗΜΙ (I belong to Dastas).

Made in Apulia (Italy) around 350-330 BC. Said to be from Rutigliano (Bari), southern Italy.
Height 9.5 cm, length 17 cm, length (base) 9.1 cm, weight 181 grams, volume 0.1 litre.

Studiendepot, Skulpturensammlung, Albertinum, Dresden. Inv. No. ZV 2867.

See: Rolf Hurschmann, Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, Deutschland, Band 76, Dresden, Staatliche
Kunstsammlungen, Skulpturensammlung
, Band 1, pages 88-89, plate (3860) 54.5-7. Munich, 2003.
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Authors and works cited
American Journal of Archaeology, published by the Archaeological Institute of America. Issues and articles available online at jstor.org. Many older articles available at the Internet Archive and some other online sources.

Anti, Carlo, Lykios. In: Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma, Anno 47 (1919), pages 55-138. P. Maglione & C. Strini, Rome, 1921. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.

Arachne, the central object database of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (DAI, German Archaeological Institute) and the Archäologisches Institut der Universität zu Köln (Archaeological Institute of the University of Cologne). The online databse contains a huge number of pages with detailed information about individual ancient artefacts (as well as reproductions), buildings and monuments, many with photos and illustrations, as well as scans of books and periodicals. The majority of the information is reliable, although there are some errors and some entries are outdated. A valuable free resource for researchers.

Arachne website: arachne.uni-koeln.de/drupal/ (in German only)

Athenaeus of Naucratis, The Deipnosophists (Banquet Of The Learned). Translated by Charles Duke Yonge. Henry G. Bohn, London, 1854. At Perseus Digital Library.

Not all books of the translation of Athenaeus' work are online, and links to some individual chapters are a little haphazard. Two Greek editions are also available at Perseus. The Loeb Classical Library edition in Greek and English is online at the Internet Archive (see below). Some books of the English translation from the Loeb Classical Library edition are also on Bill Thayer's LacusCurtius website (see below).

See also the note about Athenaeus on Ephesus gallery 1, page 22.

The Beazley Archive, at the Classical Art Research Centre (CARC), Ioannou School for Classical and Byzantine Studies, Oxford.
The CARC website includes extensive searchable databases of classical art, including pottery, gems, architectural terracottas and sculptors' signatures.

British Museum, Collection online at the British Museum website.
A searchable database of the museum's collection, including objects not on display, with photos, detailed descriptions and bibliographic references.

Boardman, John, Athenian black-figure vases: A handbook. Thames and Hudson, London, 1974 (corrected reprint, 1997).

Boardman, John, Greek sculpture, the Archaic period: A handbook. Oxford University Press, 1978.

Boardman, John, Greek art. Thames and Hudson, London, 2012 (4th edition).

Boardman, John (editor), The Oxford history of classical art. Oxford University Press, 1993.

Calder, William M., III, Kalamis Atheniensis? In: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, Volume 15, No. 3, pages 271-277. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina, 1974. At Duke University.

Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Brutus (De claris oratibus) and Orator. For information and links see Aetion.

    Also: John Selby Watson (translator and editor), Cicero on oratory and orators.
    Harper and Brothers, New York, 1860. At the Internet Archive.

Conwell, David H., Connecting a city to the sea: The history of the Athenian Long Walls. Brill, Leiden, 2008.

Corso, Antonio, The art of Praxiteles: The development of Praxiteles' workshop and its cultural tradition until the sculptor's acme (364-1 BC). L'Erma di Bretschneider, Rome, 2004.

David, Ephraim, The oligarchic revolution in Argos 417 B.C., in: L'Antiquité Classique, Année 1986, Tome 55, pages 113-124. At Persée.

Denkers, Katherine, The Philippeion at Olympia: The true image of Philip? MA thesis, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada, 2012.

Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (DAI, German Archaeological Institute). Its website contains information about the institute's activities and events, as well as an object database similar in content to the Archne website (see above).

DAI website: www.dainst.org (in German, some pages also in English)

Dodwell, Edward, A classical and topographical tour through Greece, during the years 1801, 1805, and 1806. 2 volumes). Rodwell and Martin, London, 1819.

    Both volumes available online.

    At the Internet Archive: Volume 1     Volume 2

    At Heidelberg University Digital Library: Volume 1         Volume 2

Dodwell, Edward, Views in Greece. 30 plates (unnumbered), with descriptions in French and English.
Rodwell and Martin, London, 1821. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.

Fowler, Harold N., The statue of Asklepios at Epidauros. The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, Volume 3, No. 1/2 (June 1887). At jstor.

Furtwängler, Adolf, Beschreibung der Vasensammlung im Antiquarium, Erster Band. Königliche Museen zu Berlin. W. Spemann, Berlin, 1885. At the Internet Archive.

Furtwängler, Adolf, Meisterwerke der griechischen Plastik. Giesecke & Devrient, Leipzig / Berlin, 1893. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.

Gardner, Ernest Arthur, Ancient Athens. Macmillan, 1907. At the Internet Archive.

Gellius, Aulus, Attic Nights (Noctes Atticae)

Giovagnorio, Francesca, Dedications for the Hero Ptoios in Akraiphia, Boeotia, Rosetta journal, Issue 22, Spring 2018, pages 18-39. PDF at the Department of Classics, Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Birmingham, UK.

The Greek Anthology, Volume 5 (of 5). In Greek with an English translation by William Roger Paton. William Heinemann, London; G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1925. At the Internet Archive.

Green, Peter, A concise history of ancient Greece. Thames and Hudson, London, 1973.

Gutenberg, Project. Project Gutenberg is one of the oldest and best online resources for a wide range of digitalized public domain books and publications. Its pages and texts are clearly laid out, with solid, simple designs. Unfortunately, due to a dispute over copyright with a German publishing company, the website is currently (2019) blocked for users in Germany.

www.gutenberg.org

Habicht, Michael E., Athena Hope und Athena Albani-Farnese. Zwei Schwestern-Statuen? (2002). At academia.edu.

Hammond, N. G. L., A history of Greece to 322 BC. Oxford University Press, 1959.

Herodotus, Histories     see the Herodotus page

Hesperia, the journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA).
Articles on a wide range of archaeological, historical and epigraphical subjects, particularly strong on the excavations of the Ancient Agora of Athens which are organized by ASCSA. Older issues and articles used to be avaiable free from the ASCSA website, but many have now been moved to the jstor.org website where there is a charge to read most articles.

Hurschmann, Rolf, Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, Deutschland, Band 76, Dresden, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Skulpturensammlung, Band 1. With a contribution by Kordelia Knoll. Munich, 2003.

Hurwit, Jeffrey M., Artists and signatures in ancient Greece. Cambridge University Press, 2015.

The Internet Archive, a free digital library of printed (scanned) and electronic publications (including old websites), as well as other cultural artefacts, including images, films and sound files. Its collection of scanned books and periodicals in several languages and several electronic formats is particularly good.

As with other websites containing scanned publications, in some of the text-only versions, particularly those printed in unusual typefaces (e.g. Fraktur and other older fonts) or non-Latin scripts (e.g. Greek), the text has been mangled by the scanning OCR (Optical Character Recognition) software and is unreadable. This is one reason why Bill Thayer (see below) types the contents of publications himself for his LacusCurtius website.

https://archive.org/

Jeffery, Lilian Hamilton, Lykios son of Myron: the epigraphic evidence. In: Στήλη Τόμος Εις Μνήμην Νικολάου Κοντολέοντος, pages 51-54. 1971.

Karapanagiotou, Anna Vasiliki, Archaeological Museum of Tegea. Ephorate of Antiquities of Arcadia. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports, Athens, 2017.

Keesling, Catherine M., Endoios's painting from the Themistoklean Wall: A reconstruction. Hesperia, Volume 68, No. 4 (October - December 1999), pages 509-548. American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

Keyser, Paul T., and Irby-Massie, Georgia L., Encyclopedia of ancient natural scientists: The Greek tradition and its many heirs. Routledge, 2008.

Loewy, Emanuel, Inschriften griechischer Bildhauer (Inscriptions of Greek sculptors). B. G. Teubner, Leipzig, 1885. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.

Lucian of Samosata, A portrait study (Greek, Εἰκόνες; Latin, Imagines)

In Greek: Lucian, Imagines, at Perseus Digital Library.

In English: Lucian, A portrait study. In: The works of Lucian of Samosata, Volume 3 (of 4), translated by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler (following the text of Jacobitz, Teubner, 1901). Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1905. At Project Gutenberg.

Also at: A Portrait-Study. In: The Works of Lucian of Samosata. The same edition at ebooks at the University of Adelaide.

Massaro, Vin, Herodotos' account of the Battle of Marathon and the picture in the Stoa Poikile, in L'Antiquité Classique, Tome 47, fasc. 2, 1978, pages 458-475. Brussels, 1978. At Persée.

Marx, Patricia A., Acropolis 625 (Endoios Athena) and the rediscovery of its findspot. Hesperia, Volume 70, No. 2 (April - June 2001), pages 221-254. The American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA). At jstor.org.

Morgan, Charles Hill, Pheidias and Olympia. In: Hesperia, Volume 21 (1952), Issue 4, Pages 295-339. At jstor.org.

Olympia, Greece. The results and finds of the German archaeological exavations at Olympia in the 19th century were published in a number of volumes:

See: Ernst Curtius and Friedrich Adler (editors), Olympia: die Ergebnisse der von dem Deutschen Reich veranstalteten Ausgrabung (Olympia: the results of the excavations organized by the German Reich). All volumes online and available as PDFs at Heidelberg University Digital Library.

Particularly Volume 5, text with drawings of inscriptions: Wilhelm Dittenberger and Karl Purgold, Textband 5: Die Inschriften von Olympia. A. Ascher & Co., Berlin, 1896. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.

Overbeck, Johannes Adolph, Die antiken Schriftquellen zur Geschichte der bildenden Künste bei den Griechen (The ancient manuscript sources on the history of Greek visual arts). Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 1868. At the Internet Archive.

The Packard Humanities Institute, Los Altos, California. Its website contains searchable databases of Greek and Latin inscriptions and classical Latin Texts.

epigraphy.packhum.org      Classical Latin Texts: latin.packhum.org

Palagia, Olga, Euphranor. Brill, Leiden, 1980.

Pausanias, Description of Greece     see the Pausanias page

    See also:

    J. G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece, translated with a commentary.
    6 Volumes. Macmillan and Co., London, 1898. At the Internet Archive.
    Comprehensive notes and commentary on Pausanias' text, including references to what
    was at the time the latest historical, geographical and archaeological scholarship.

    Friedrich Imhoof-Blumer and Percy Gardner, A numismatic commentary on Pausanias.
    Richard Clay and Sons, London and Bungay, 1887. At the Internet Archive.

Perdrizet, Paul, Inscriptions d'Acraephiae, a series of articles on the inscriptions found at Akraiphia, Boeotia, published in Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (BCH), including:

Inscriptions d'Acraephiae, BCH, Année 1898, 22, pages 241-260;

Inscriptions d'Acraephiae, BCH, Année 1900, 24, page 70-81.

All articles in the series available online at Persée, www.persee.fr.

Perseus Digital Library Project, dealing mostly with the history, literature and culture of the Greco-Roman world. The website contains a free online database of ancient Greek and Latin texts and translations, as well as sections on art and archaeology.

www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/

Petronius (Gaius Petronius Arbiter or Titus Petronius Arbiter), Satyricon

Pliny the Elder, Natural history     see the Pliny the Elder page

Pollitt, Jerome Jordan, The art of ancient Greece: sources and documents. Cambridge University Press, 1990. At Google Books.

Powell, Anton (editor), The Greek world. Routledge, London and New York, 1995.

Plutarch, Parallel lives

Preuner, Hermann Erich, Ein delphisches Weihgeschenk. Doctoral dissertation, Kaiser Wilhelms-Universität Strassburg, 1899. Universitäts-Buchdruckerei von Carl Georgi, Bonn, 1899. At the Internet Archive.

Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, circa 35-100 AD), Institutio Oratoria (Institutes of Oratory), published around 95 AD. English translation by Harold Edgeworth Butler. The Loeb Classical Library edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., and William Heinemann, London, 1922. At Perseus Digital Library.

Raubitschek, Antony E., with the collaboration of Lilian H. Jeffery, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis: A catalogue of the inscriptions of the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. (usually abbreviated as DAA). Archaeological Institute of America, Cambridge, Mass., 1949. Links to the online edition at the Hathi Trust website.

Richter, Gisela M. A., The Menon Painter = Psiax. American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 38, No. 4 (October - December 1934), pages 547-554. At jstor.

Saatsoglou-Paliadele, Chrysoula, ΝΑΩΝ ΕΥΣΤΥΛΩΝ: A fragmentary inscription of the Classical period from Vergina. In: E. Voutyras (editor), Inscriptions of Macedonia, Third International Symposium on Macedonia, Thessaloniki, 8-12 December 1993, pages 101-102. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1996.

Sealey, Raphael, A history of the Greek city states 700-338 BC. University of California Press, 1976.

Sezgin, Yusuf and Aybek, Serdar, A group of portrait statues from the Bouleuterion of Aigia: A preliminary report. In: Ralf von den Hoff, Francois Queyrel, Eric Perrin-Samindayar (editors), Eikones: Portrais en contexte. Recherches sur les portrais grecs du Ve au Ier s. av. J.-C., pages 17-43. Osanna Edizioni, Venosa, 2016. At academia.edu.

Shear, Ione Mylonas, Kallikrates. Hesperia, Volume 32, No. 4 (October - December 1963), pages 375-424, plates 86-91. American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA). At jstor.org.

Stewart, Andrew, Faces of Power: Alexander's Image and Hellenistic Politics. University of California Press, 1993.

Stewart, Andrew, One hundred Greek sculptors, their careers and extant works. At Perseus Digital Library.

Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. Its webite contains a wide range of research resources, including information concerning works by ancient authors and inscriptions. It is also the home of the vast Suda On Line project.

www.stoa.org/

Strabo, Geography     see the Strabo page

Strocka, Volker Michael, Der Apollon des Kanachos in Didyma und der Beginn des strengen Stils. In: Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Band 117 (2002), pages 81-135 with illustrations. Walter de Gruyter, 2003. At Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg.

Suidas     Suda On Line: stoa.org/sol/

Tatian (Τατιανός; Latin, Tatianus; also known as Tatian of Adiabene, Tatian the Syrian or Tatian the Assyrian), Address to the Greeks (Oratio ad Graecos), translated by Benjamin Plummer Pratten, with additional notes by Jonathon Edwards Ryland. In: Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (editors), Ante-Nicene, Christian Library: Translations of the writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325, Volume III. T. and T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1867. At Early Christian Writings.

Thayer, Bill, LacusCurtius website, University of Chicago. A large website dealing with Roman antiquity, including works by ancient authors in Greek and Latin, as well as translations. Also photos of Roman and Etruscan cities and monuments, and more...

Bill Thayer's homepage: penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/home.html

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War     see the Thucydides page

Trendall, Arthur Dale (1909-1995), Red figure vases of South Italy and Sicily: A handbook. Thames and Hudson, London, 1989.

Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture (De Architectura, On Architecture)     see the Vitruvius page

White, John Williams, The scholia on the Aves of Aristophanes. Ginn and Company, Boston and London, 1914. At the Internet Archive.
 
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